Vladan Đorđević, Slavica Đukić Dejanović, Ljiljana Janković and Ljubomir Todorović
Patients with schizophrenia, especially during period of their hospitalization, are likely to constitute a high-risk group of individuals with respect to prevalence of oral diseases. Several factors are mentioned in the manuscript that may contribute to the finding of increased prevalence of oral diseases in patients with schizophrenia. Unfortunately, some of these can be attributed to dental profession; these patients are sometimes deprived of dental service as they cannot afford the treatment due to its cost and they are even neglected sometimes by dental professionals. The idea of providing oral health care in the environment of specialized health care institutions, such as psychiatric hospitals, during periods of hospitalization, is especially emphasized.
Nowadays in the aesthetic dentistry concepts, techniques, and materials which aim is to establish new smiles with minimally invasive approaches and maximum natural effect on the restorations and in the same time to restore the mastication and phonetics for a better quality of life are used. However, the patient’s demands and the level of information has driven the profession to a certain questioning respecting the treatment customization especially those related to treatment planning according to the individual psychological characteristics of each patient, that if ignored, may lead to esthetically dissatisfaction, even though all the esthetic rules which tend to establish standards were incorporated.
The purpose of this article is to show that besides the esthetic rules established throughout the time, the emotional expression of the treatment, represented by the shapes and lines constituent of a smile, should also be taken into consideration during the treatment planning. Softwares for personalized smile design could be powerful tool for planning such new smile designs.
Misho Hristovski, Aleksandar Cvetkovik, Iskra Cvetkovik and Violeta Dukoska
Concept of One Health - a New Professional Imperative
Aim. To present the challenges of modern veterinary medicine, the need for medical cooperation, ways to accomplish cooperation and the benefits of the One Health concept with one goal - Health for All.
Methods. Review of the recent literature on the One Health concept.
Results. Improving animal and human health globally should be through collaboration among all health sciences, especially between the veterinary and human medical professions to address critical needs. Meeting new global challenges and among them protecting health head-on through collaboration among multiple professions - veterinary medicine, human medicine, environmental protection, public health, etc. It is necessary to develop centres of excellence for education and training in specific areas of public health. In addition, increasing professional opportunities, and gaining scientific knowledge to create innovative programs to improve health is essential.
Conclusion. For realization of the One Health concept the following must be done: health care workers, mostly doctors of veterinary and human medicine need to work together; to recognize the uniformity of veterinary and human medicine; establish horizontal and vertical cooperation between all relevant institutions responsible for the health of humans, animals and the ecosystem; inclusion of the concept of One Health in Public Health education and continuous training of health professionals to better cope with existing and new medical challenges. A combination of different skills and ways of thinking, results in synergism that will enhance health care in the 21st century through accelerating the biomedical research, enhancing the effectiveness of public health, expanding the base of scientific knowledge and improving medical knowledge and clinical care.
Aleksandar Petlichkovski, Dejan Trajkov, Ana Strezova and Mirko Spiroski
60. Years (1945-2005) Macedonian Medical Association
This year the monographic book "60 Years Macedonian Medical Association 1945-2005" was published, denoting more then six decades successful existence of Macedonian Medical Association (MMA). In the period behind us, the MMA has been bearer of the continuous development and growth of the health provision system. Starting its activities back in 1945, with only 123 doctors and dentists working in Republic of Macedonia, the MMA today represents more then 5000 doctors, of whom 3025 are specialists in various fields. The doctors in the MMA are organized into 22 regional or local associations and 70 specialist and sub-specialist associations. The MMA was the predecessor of the Faculty of Medicine in Macedonia, with the vast majority of the staff being recruited from MMA. A major contribution to the professional and scientific development of the medical profession in Macedonia was achieved through the introduction of the scientific journal and organization of scientific congresses under auspice of MMA. Today MMA is an active participant, initiator and consultant in the creation and improvement of the laws regulating the health service provision in the country. The highest state honour, the 11th October Award was awarded to MMA, as recognition for its continuous commitment to progress of Macedonian medicine.
Blaze Nikolovski, Zarko Karadzovski and Jovanka Kostovska
30 Years of Brucellosis in the Republic of Macedonia: Experience with its Prevalence, Prevention and Control
Aim. To present the epidemiological patterns of brucellosis and to analyse measures for prevention and control of brucellosis in the Republic of Macedonia from 1980 to 2009.
Methods. Epidemiological reports and other documents available on brucellosis patients, as well as other official documents and reports from the veterinary health services, were analysed in relation to the measures and activities for the prevention and control of brucellosis in the Republic of Macedonia in the last 30 years.
Results. During the period from 1980 to 2009, approximately 11,000 human patients were registered, with an annual average of morbidity of 20 per 100,000 inhabitants. The health service directed its preventive measures towards three target groups: the general population, farmers, and those engaged in relevant professions. After the brucellosis outbreak in the Bitola region in 1980, 11000 animals were killed within three years. Herd slaughtering was carried out in cases where more than 20% of the sheep were affected by the disease. Enormous damage was done and the number of infected people rapidly increased. Therefore, an interdepartmental commission was established in order to come up with a Brucellosis Eradication Programme. Unfortunately, the Programme was not implemented properly due to financial problems and several other reasons.
Conclusion. After its outbreak in the Republic of Macedonia in 1980 brucellosis spread all over the country, becoming an endemic disease. The main reason for this fact should be traced to the failure to prepare an appropriate strategy and approach for the efficient prevention and control of brucellosis.
Tanja Jovanovska and Viktorija Prodanovska-Stojcevska
Smith DR, Leggat PA. An international review of tobacco smoking in the medical profession: 1974-2004. BMC Public Health. 2007;7:115.
The Global Youth Tobacco Survey Collaborative Group. Tobacco use among youth; a cross country comparison. Tab Control. 2002;11;252-70.
Oya I, Gul E, Emel C. Knowledge and attitudes about smoking among students in a Medical Faculty. Turk Resp J. 2004;2: 086-091.
Nerin I, Guillen D, Mas A, Crucelaegui A. Evaluation of the influence of medical education in the
V. Petrović, N. Pejčić, P. Bulat, M. Djurić-Jovičić, N. Miljković and D. Marković
. Musculoskeletal symptoms among dentists in relation to work posture. Work, 2000; 15:153-158.
6. Puriene A, Janulyte V, Musteikyte M, Bendinskaite R. General health of dentists. Literature review. Stomatologija, 2007; 9:10-20.
7. Hayes M, Smith D, Cockrell D. An international review of musculoskeletal disorders in the dental hygiene profession. Int Dent J, 2010; 60:343-352.
8. Leggat PA, Kedjarune U, Smith DR. Occupational health problems in modern dentistry. Ind Health, 2007; 45:611-621.
9. Hayes MJ, Cockrell D
Gabriel Ungureanu, Ioana-Dana Alexa and Maria-Christina Ungureanu
The authors discuss an important chapter of iatrogenic pathology – unneccessary medicine, by reviewing epidemiological aspects and financial impact and identifying such elements in no less than 10 areas: surgery, interventional medicine, diagnostic investigation, substitute procedures, preventive medicine, drug therapy, aesthetic shared medical appointments, surgery, unconventional medicine, medicine on political demand. We shall review the causes, motives and mechanisms of unnecessary medicine such as one’s hyperprudence to cover oneself with diagnosis arguments or to prevent potential complications through preventive therapies (defensive medicine), weak functionality of the institutionalized inspection bodies, onerous motivation. The respect for the fundamental principles of medical ethics (the primum non-nocere principle doubled by the principle of doing good), the use of practice guidelines, the proper functioning self-control mechanisms in exercising the medical profession, a different management of error and the existence of a consistent protective legislation for both the patient and doctor would be key-elements to avoiding unnecessary medicine.
Medical doctors are granted a license to practice following years of study and diligent assessment. Licensure is granted on the understanding that doctors will use their knowledge and skills to meet and advance the needs of their patients and, in so doing, place those needs ahead of other considerations, most notably self-interest. The compact thus formed engenders trust between the medical profession, patients, and society. The smooth functioning of a modern healthcare system cannot occur in the absence of trust. The adverse experience of healthcare systems in