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Factors affecting voice quality in early glottic cancer before and after radiotherapy

the studies showed that RT is more expensive than endoscopic laser surgery, RT still remains the preferred treatment modality in many oncological centres due to the presumably better voice quality outcome. 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 Voice quality has a significant effect on patients’ quality of life as it plays an important role in patients’ communication with others. 6 It also defines the time when the patient is unable to work, especially for those who use their voice in their profession. Therefore, it is important for them to have good voice quality as soon as

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Schizophrenia and Oral Health - Review of the Literature

Summary

Patients with schizophrenia, especially during period of their hospitalization, are likely to constitute a high-risk group of individuals with respect to prevalence of oral diseases. Several factors are mentioned in the manuscript that may contribute to the finding of increased prevalence of oral diseases in patients with schizophrenia. Unfortunately, some of these can be attributed to dental profession; these patients are sometimes deprived of dental service as they cannot afford the treatment due to its cost and they are even neglected sometimes by dental professionals. The idea of providing oral health care in the environment of specialized health care institutions, such as psychiatric hospitals, during periods of hospitalization, is especially emphasized.

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Personalized Digital Smile Design for Predictable Aesthetic Results

Summary

Nowadays in the aesthetic dentistry concepts, techniques, and materials which aim is to establish new smiles with minimally invasive approaches and maximum natural effect on the restorations and in the same time to restore the mastication and phonetics for a better quality of life are used. However, the patient’s demands and the level of information has driven the profession to a certain questioning respecting the treatment customization especially those related to treatment planning according to the individual psychological characteristics of each patient, that if ignored, may lead to esthetically dissatisfaction, even though all the esthetic rules which tend to establish standards were incorporated.

The purpose of this article is to show that besides the esthetic rules established throughout the time, the emotional expression of the treatment, represented by the shapes and lines constituent of a smile, should also be taken into consideration during the treatment planning. Softwares for personalized smile design could be powerful tool for planning such new smile designs.

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Concept of One Health - a New Professional Imperative

Concept of One Health - a New Professional Imperative

Aim. To present the challenges of modern veterinary medicine, the need for medical cooperation, ways to accomplish cooperation and the benefits of the One Health concept with one goal - Health for All.

Methods. Review of the recent literature on the One Health concept.

Results. Improving animal and human health globally should be through collaboration among all health sciences, especially between the veterinary and human medical professions to address critical needs. Meeting new global challenges and among them protecting health head-on through collaboration among multiple professions - veterinary medicine, human medicine, environmental protection, public health, etc. It is necessary to develop centres of excellence for education and training in specific areas of public health. In addition, increasing professional opportunities, and gaining scientific knowledge to create innovative programs to improve health is essential.

Conclusion. For realization of the One Health concept the following must be done: health care workers, mostly doctors of veterinary and human medicine need to work together; to recognize the uniformity of veterinary and human medicine; establish horizontal and vertical cooperation between all relevant institutions responsible for the health of humans, animals and the ecosystem; inclusion of the concept of One Health in Public Health education and continuous training of health professionals to better cope with existing and new medical challenges. A combination of different skills and ways of thinking, results in synergism that will enhance health care in the 21st century through accelerating the biomedical research, enhancing the effectiveness of public health, expanding the base of scientific knowledge and improving medical knowledge and clinical care.

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60. Years (1945-2005) Macedonian Medical Association

60. Years (1945-2005) Macedonian Medical Association

This year the monographic book "60 Years Macedonian Medical Association 1945-2005" was published, denoting more then six decades successful existence of Macedonian Medical Association (MMA). In the period behind us, the MMA has been bearer of the continuous development and growth of the health provision system. Starting its activities back in 1945, with only 123 doctors and dentists working in Republic of Macedonia, the MMA today represents more then 5000 doctors, of whom 3025 are specialists in various fields. The doctors in the MMA are organized into 22 regional or local associations and 70 specialist and sub-specialist associations. The MMA was the predecessor of the Faculty of Medicine in Macedonia, with the vast majority of the staff being recruited from MMA. A major contribution to the professional and scientific development of the medical profession in Macedonia was achieved through the introduction of the scientific journal and organization of scientific congresses under auspice of MMA. Today MMA is an active participant, initiator and consultant in the creation and improvement of the laws regulating the health service provision in the country. The highest state honour, the 11th October Award was awarded to MMA, as recognition for its continuous commitment to progress of Macedonian medicine.

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30 Years of Brucellosis in the Republic of Macedonia: Experience with its Prevalence, Prevention and Control

30 Years of Brucellosis in the Republic of Macedonia: Experience with its Prevalence, Prevention and Control

Aim. To present the epidemiological patterns of brucellosis and to analyse measures for prevention and control of brucellosis in the Republic of Macedonia from 1980 to 2009.

Methods. Epidemiological reports and other documents available on brucellosis patients, as well as other official documents and reports from the veterinary health services, were analysed in relation to the measures and activities for the prevention and control of brucellosis in the Republic of Macedonia in the last 30 years.

Results. During the period from 1980 to 2009, approximately 11,000 human patients were registered, with an annual average of morbidity of 20 per 100,000 inhabitants. The health service directed its preventive measures towards three target groups: the general population, farmers, and those engaged in relevant professions. After the brucellosis outbreak in the Bitola region in 1980, 11000 animals were killed within three years. Herd slaughtering was carried out in cases where more than 20% of the sheep were affected by the disease. Enormous damage was done and the number of infected people rapidly increased. Therefore, an interdepartmental commission was established in order to come up with a Brucellosis Eradication Programme. Unfortunately, the Programme was not implemented properly due to financial problems and several other reasons.

Conclusion. After its outbreak in the Republic of Macedonia in 1980 brucellosis spread all over the country, becoming an endemic disease. The main reason for this fact should be traced to the failure to prepare an appropriate strategy and approach for the efficient prevention and control of brucellosis.

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Occupational Voice Disorders in Slovakia Today and in the Past

Abstract

Introduction: Voice disorders primarily affect workers in professions with increased voice demands, such as teaching personnel in educational system, singers, lecturers, actors or managers. Severe voice disorders often require a permanent change of work position.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of a set of patients with occupational voice disorders who were hospitalized at the Clinic of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, Martin University Hospital (COMaT, MUH) in the years of 2000–2017. Comparison of the data obtained with the National Centre of Medical Information (NCMI) data on the occurrence of occupational voice disorders throughout the Slovak Republic (SR). Comparison with the retrospective analysis of reported occupational voice disorders in the years of 1967-1996. Case report of a patient with an occupational voice disorder.

Results: We point to a long-term low incidence of occupational voice disorders. In the years of 2000-2017, 24 cases of occupational voice disorders were reported in Slovakia, of which 20 cases were reported under item 42-1 and 4 cases under item 42-2 in the List of Occupational Diseases. Through the COMaT, MUH 11 cases of occupational voice disorders were reported during these years, of which 9 cases were listed under item 42-1 and 2 cases under item 42-2. From 1967 to 1996 there were 52 occupational voice disorders reported in Slovakia, of which 45 were under item 42-1 and 7 under item 42-2.

Conclusions: As there is a tendency to underestimate the voice difficulties among teaching staff, it is necessary to provide better information about the possible consequences, prevention, and treatment of these diseases. All of this should be in the competency of occupational health services.

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The Attitudes of Students - Future Health Professionals Regarding Tobacco Usage

. Smith DR, Leggat PA. An international review of tobacco smoking in the medical profession: 1974-2004. BMC Public Health. 2007;7:115. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey Collaborative Group. Tobacco use among youth; a cross country comparison. Tab Control. 2002;11;252-70. Oya I, Gul E, Emel C. Knowledge and attitudes about smoking among students in a Medical Faculty. Turk Resp J. 2004;2: 086-091. Nerin I, Guillen D, Mas A, Crucelaegui A. Evaluation of the influence of medical education in the

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One Snake or Two? Exploring Medical Symbols Among Medical Students

should represent the medical profession? Lancet 364(9432):416. 12. Subbarayappa BV. The roots of ancient medicine: an historical outline. J BioSci 2001;26(2):135-53. 13. Hinek A, Backstein R. The magic wands of medicine. Univ Toronto Med J 2004;82(1):68-70. 14. Hart GD. Asclepius, God of Medicine. Can Med Assoc J 1965;92(5):232-6. 15. Adebayo O. Symbols of Medicine. History of Medicine: A glimpse a work and a world. Ilorin: Insight & Project; 2006. 16. Kritikos A, Bekiari A, Famissis K, Nikitaras N, Sakellariou K. Asclepius. The“ anax of

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