Search Results

1 - 10 of 55 items :

  • Basic Medical Science x
Clear All
Knowledge and social opinions about physiotherapists

fizjoterapeuty przez studentów I roku studiów I stopnia polskich uczelni o różnych profilach kształcenia. Fizjoter Poa. 2009; 2 (4); vol. 9:109-121 15. Pujsza A., Tomczak H. Position of physiotheraphy profession in Poland: percepcion of physiotherapy student. Acta Balneologica 2012; 4: 267-273 16. Nowicki G, Ślusarska B. Determinanty społeczno-demograficzne wartościowania zdrowia wśród pracujących osób dorosłych. Hygeia Public Health 2011; 46(2): 280-285 17. Knapik A, Rottermund J, Myśliwiec A, Plinta R, Gruca M. Aktywność

Open access
21st Century era of anatomy
Open access
Open access
Anatomy of the vasculature supplying hepatobiliary structures and celiac trunk branching patterns in the Thai population

Abstract

Background

Knowledge of the anatomy of the celiac trunk (CT) and arterial supply of the hepatobiliary system is essential for surgical and interventional radiological treatment of upper abdominal diseases.

Objectives

To determine the branching patterns of the CT and variation in origin and type of the right hepatic artery (RHA), left hepatic artery (LHA), and cystic artery (CA).

Methods

The anatomy of the CT in 100 cadavers from Thai adult donors was observed in 3 aspects: its branching pattern, the origin of the RHA and LHA, and the origin of the CA and its relation to the common bile duct (CBD) and common hepatic duct (CHD).

Results

The majority of the CT branching pattern was categorized as the type II classical pattern, which has 3 branches: the left gastric artery (LGA), splenic artery (SA), and common hepatic artery (CHA). The RHA branched from proper hepatic artery in 67 cadavers. The origin of the accessory RHA was either from the abdominal aorta or superior mesenteric artery (SMA), whereas the replaced RHA originated from the CHA, SMA, or CT. The accessory LHA ramified from CHA (2 cases) and LGA (1 case). The replaced LHA was found in 30 cadavers and 29 arose from the CHA. The single and double types of CA were found in 94 and 4 cadavers, respectively. In all, 57% of single CA passed posteriorly and 39% passed anteriorly to the CBD and CHD.

Conclusions

To lower posttreatment complications, variations in the anatomy and the vascular supply of hepatobiliary structures should be considered.

Open access
Cytotoxic responses of human chondrocytes to bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine

Abstract

Background

Intra-articular injections of local anesthetics are used commonly in articular surgery. However, chondrocyte viability and metabolism may be adversely affected by various anesthetics.

Objectives

To assess the chondrotoxic effects of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine on human chondrocytes and elucidate possible mechanisms of chondrocyte death.

Methods

Cultured human chondrocytes (CHON-001) were exposed to 0.25% or 0.5% of bupivacaine, levobupivacaine, and ropivacaine in vitro. Cell viability was determined by flow cytometry after 15, 30, 60, and 120 min of exposure. Chondrocyte reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was measured every 10 min for up to 1 h using 2ʹ,7ʹ-dichlorodihydrofluorescein staining. Chondrocyte production of glycosaminoglycan was measured by capillary electrophoresis. NO production was measured using a colorimetric assay kit.

Results

We found a significant increase in chondrotoxicity dependent on exposure time and concentration of the anesthetic. At 60 min, chondrocyte viability was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased when exposed to 0.5% levobupivacaine (32.5%), or 0.25% or 0.5% bupivacaine (34.3% or 46.5%, respectively) compared with exposure to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) vehicle as a control. Cell death at 120 min was mainly necrosis. There was no difference in viability after treatment with either concentration (0.25% or 0.5%) of ropivacaine at any time compared with exposure to PBS. We found increased production of NO, while ROS decreased after exposure to any of the anesthetics tested.

Conclusions

Ropivacaine may be safer than bupivacaine or levobupivacaine as an intra-articular analgesic. Chondrotoxicity of anesthetics in vitro may be mediated via a reactive nitrogen species-dependent pathway.

Open access
Evaluation of SHP1-P2 methylation as a biomarker of lymph node metastasis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

Abstract

Background

Hypermethylation of Src homology region 2 domain-containing protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1 promoter 2 (SHP1-P2) has been proven as an epithelial-specific marker. This marker has been used for the detection of lymph node metastasis in patients with lung cancer or colon cancer.

Objectives

To investigate SHP1-P2 methylation in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) and determine its potential for micrometastasis detection in the lymph nodes of patients with HNSCC.

Methods

SHP1-P2 methylation levels were analyzed by combined methylation-specific primer TaqMan real-time PCR in 5 sample groups: normal tonsils (n = 10), microdissected squamous cell carcinoma epithelia (n = 9), nonmetastatic head and neck cancer lymph nodes (LN N0, n = 15), metastatic HNSCC histologically negative for tumor cells (LN–, n = 18), and matched cases histologically positive for tumor cells (LN+, n = 18).

Results

SHP1-P2 methylation of 10.27 ± 4.05% was found in normal tonsils as a lymphoid tissue baseline, whereas it was 61.31 ± 17.00% in microdissected cancer cell controls. In the 3 lymph node groups, the SHP1-P2 methylation levels were 9.99 ± 6.61% for LN N0, 14.49 ± 10.03% for LN- Nx, and 41.01 ± 24.51% for LN+ Nx. The methylation levels for LN- Nx and LN+ Nx were significantly different (P = 0.0002). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of SHP1-P2 methylation demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.637 in distinguishing LN N0 from LN– Nx.

Conclusions

SHP1-P2 methylation was high in HNSCC, and low in lymphoid tissues. This methylation difference is concordant with lymph node metastasis.

Open access
Behavioral and histopathological studies of cervical spinal cord contusion injury in rats caused by an adapted weight-drop device

Abstract

Background

Models of spinal cord injury (SCI) caused by weight-drop devices to cause contusion have been used extensively, and transient behavioral deficits after thoracic injury have been demonstrated. The severity of the injury caused by the device should be mild enough to allow recovery.

Objective

To determine whether our adapted weight-drop device with a small tip can effectively induce mild hemicontusion at the level of the fifth cervical vertebra.

Methods

We divided 15 adult male Sprague Dawley rats into groups of 5 for the following treatments: sham (SH, laminectomy only), mild (MSCI) or severe SCI (SSCI). Behavioral tests and histopathology were used before (day 1) and after the treatment on days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 to assess the injury.

Results

Rats with SSCI showed a significant somatosensory deficit on days 3 and 7 compared with rats in the SH group, recovering by day 14. In a horizontal-ladder test of skilled locomotion, rats with SSCI showed a significant increase in error scores and percentage of total rungs used, and a decrease in the percentage of correct paw placement compared with rats in the SH group. There was greater recovery to normal paw placement by rats with MSCI than by rats with SSCI. These behavioral deficits were consistent with histopathology using hematoxylin and eosin counterstained Luxol fast blue, indicating the degree of injury and lesion area.

Conclusions

Mild hemicontusion caused by the adapted device can be used to evaluate SCI and provides a model with which to test the efficacy of translational therapies for SCI.

Open access
Proteomics study of the antifibrotic effects of α-mangostin in a rat model of renal fibrosis

Abstract

Background

Renal fibrosis is a consequence of a “faulty” wound-healing mechanism that results in the accumulation of extracellular matrix, which could lead to the impairment of renal functions. α-Mangostin (AM) may prevent the formation of liver fibrosis, but there has yet to be a conclusive investigation of its effect on renal fibrosis.

Objectives

To investigate the renoprotective effect of AM against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced renal fibrosis in rats at the morphological and proteomic levels.

Methods

We divided 18 male Wistar rats into 3 groups: a control group, a TAA-treated group, and a TAA + AM group. The various agents used to treat the rats were administered intraperitoneally over 8 weeks. Subsequently, the morphology of renal tissue was analyzed by histology using Sirius Red staining and the relative amount of stained collagen fibers quantified using ImageJ analysis. One-dimensional gel liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GeLC-MS/MS) was used to track levels of protein expression. Proteomic bioinformatics tools including STITCH were used to correlate the levels of markers known to be involved in fibrosis with Sirius Red-stained collagen scoring.

Results

Histology revealed that AM could reduce the relative amount of collagen fibers significantly compared with the TAA group. Proteomic analysis revealed the levels of 4 proteins were modulated by AM, namely CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator (Cflar), Ragulator complex protein LAMTOR3 (Lamtor3), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 14 (Map3k14), and C-Jun-amino-terminal kinase-interacting protein 3 (Mapk8ip3).

Conclusion

AM can attenuate renal fibrosis by the suppression of pathways involving Cflar, Lamtor3, Map3k14, and Mapk8ip3.

Open access
Unusual accessory peroneal muscles, peroneus quartus, peroneus digiti quinti, and their association with peroneus brevis tendon tear

Abstract

Background

Anatomic variation and supernumerary contents in the superior peroneal tunnel, and the prominence of the retrotrochlear eminence and peroneal tubercle are related to peroneal tendon disorders.

Objectives

To investigate the prevalence, origin, and insertion of accessory peroneal muscles, the prominence of the retrotrochlear eminence and peroneal tubercle, and their association with peroneal tendon tears.

Methods

We examined 109 formalin-embalmed legs of cadavers from Thai donors. Accessory peroneal muscles and peroneal tendon tears were noted. Associations with peroneal tendon tears were evaluated using a χ2 test.

Results

We found 48 accessory peroneal muscles comprising 13 peroneus quartus (PQ), 33 peroneus digiti quinti (PDQ), and 2 unusual muscles. All PDQ originated from the PB tendon and inserted on various parts of the 5th toe. The PQ originated mostly from the PB muscle belly and less from the tendinous part with various insertions on the retrotrochlear eminence, peroneal tubercle, cuboid, and dorsolateral surface of the 5th metatarsal base. Two unusual accessory muscles were identified, 1 coexisting with the PQ. A PB tendon tear was found in 13% of specimens. We found no association between the peroneal tendon tears and the accessory peroneal muscles, or prominence of the retrotrochlear eminence or peroneal tubercle.

Conclusions

The prevalence of PQ, PDQ, and unusual accessory peroneal muscles was concordant with previous findings. We noted a new type of unusual accessory peroneal muscle coexisting with the PQ. No association was found between peroneal tendon tears and the PQ, PDQ, or prominence of the retrotrochlear eminence or peroneal tubercle.

Open access