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Partnership as a legal form of exercising the profession of midwife


Introduction. The profession of midwife belongs to the medical ones. In the Polish legal system, the definition it is not of a legislative nature. It refers to liberal professions associated with practical medical knowledge. However, the profession of midwife has also been included in the catalog of liberal professions under the commercial law, and the legislature allows the practice of midwife in the form of a partnership.

Nevertheless, the majority of midwives working in Poland is employed on the basis of an employment relationship and a civil law agreement, while exercising practice in the form of partnership is not a frequent choice.

Aim. The purpose of this article is to profile the midwife partnership, including the approximation of its essence and purpose, as well as the rights and obligations of the partner, and discussion of the terms and conditions of the company's medical business.

Summary. Compared to other commercial companies, a limited liability partnership company is an attractive legal form for exercising the profession of midwife, primarily because of the partner's liability for the company's obligations. At the same time, the midwife partnership company, by combining both a reduction of personal responsibility, transparent representation with the use of possibility of appointing a board, and the possibility of accumulating financial and intellectual capital, meets the demands of the free services market and growing competition, thereby fostering service quality.

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Knowledge of women receiving healthcare services on the tasks of midwife working in the primary health care

PIŚMIENICTWO/REFERENCES 1. Iwanowicz-Palus G, Golonka E, Bień A, Stadnicka G. Postrzeganie zawodu położnej przez społeczeństwo (Perception of midwife’s profession by socjety). Pielęg. XXI w. 2013; 2(43): 35-42. 2. Iwanowicz-Palus G, Krysa J, Bień A. Rola położnej rodzinnej w Polsce. Med. Og. Nauk o Zdr. 2013; 19 (3): 272–278. 3. Ustawa z dnia 15 lipca 2011 r. o zawodach pielęgniarki i położnej (Dz.U. 2011 Nr 174 poz. 1039) 4. Ustawa z dnia 27 października 2017 r. o podstawowej opiece zdrowotnej (Dz.U. 2017 poz. 2217) 5. Biskupska M

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Possible influence of social media on shaping the image of nurses on the Internet


Introduction. Nowadays, a professional image is an important element of the identity of individual professions. Its formation is a difficult process, dependent on many factors, including the use of new communication channels, such as social media, which in recent years have become a space for expressing social opinion, including those concerning individual professions.

Aim. The analysis of the possibilities of using social media in shaping the image of nurses on the Internet.

Material and methods. The study was carried out using the comparative method. The subject of the research were websites (fanpages) related to the professional environment of nurses on the social networking site, chosen deliberately according to the adopted criteria.

Findings. During the research, differences in the strategy of administering the analyzed websites were identified, depending mainly on the subject matter and purpose of publishing the content. The topicality, visual attractiveness and cohesion were characterized by a high level. The posts appearing on individual websites were written in the language of the recipients, with different publication frequency. The websites created a long-term group of recipients and tried to influence the image of nursing in Poland in a positive way.

Conclusions. Content published on social media can affect both the positive and negative image of the nurse in the public opinion. Among the factors that do not affect the image of nurses can be indicated, among others, offensive language of comments and displaying negative traits of nurses. Positive reception guarantees current knowledge in the field of nursing and emphasizing professional competences.

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Cultural context of nursing in the field of outpatient healthcare in Serbia


Introduction. Modern world map characterizes existence of pluralistic and multicultural societies formed as a result of increased citizens’ mobility and globalization process. Cultural diversity realizes its implications in all the aspects of social functioning and in significant share through the system of healthcare. Accepting the concept of illness as a social construct, intercultural attitudes become leading principle of education and practice of healthcare workers at every level. By the nature of their profession, nurses in the primary healthcare institutions acquire key role in the process of implementation of inter-cultural principles in clinical practice, with the aim for the healthcare system to become more open and more sensitive to specific social occurrences and culturally driven healthcare need of its users.

Aim. The expected contribution of the work is oriented towards the possibility of theoretical and practical foundation of multidimensional and multi-perspective approach to healthcare.

Discussion. The discourse of the cultural context of nursing in the field of outpatient healthcare in Serbia is based on the axiomatic assumption that illness is a social construct and that sociological and anthropological perspective can change the clinical practice. The work comprises basic cultural factors as a dynamic factor of health and illness, principles, elements and significance of cultural assessment of the patient in nursing practice; presents the differences in patient’s position within the Parsons concept and contemporary concept of post-modern approach to the patient. Cultural concept of nursing in Serbia has been analyzed through the prism of “5D Cultural model” by Dr. Geert Hofsted with presentation and interpretation of its basic dimensions.

Conclusions. Healthcare system in Serbia is facing challenges of reforms – the introduction of socio-cultural aspect in creating of primary healthcare policy in the spirit of modern multicultural social tendencies. Aiming to provide quality healthcare it is necessary to understand how a society acknowledges the terms of health and illness and which cultural aspects lies in the base of individual’s behavior. If one healthcare is not founded upon cultural values then it is impossible to achieve its therapeutic goal, it will be incomplete and unsuccessful. The treatment plan and patient’s care must be individual, holistic and culturally appropriate.

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Analysis of health behaviors and the significance of health among occupationally-active persons


Introduction. Health is a positive and superior value for every human being, which we want to maintain and reinforce. Health initiative skills should be developed not only in the adolescence phase, but also in the period of active participation in occupational and private life. Today, important recipients of all educational and health-promoting activities are occupationally-active persons, who reflect the state of health of the whole society through their own state of health.

Aim. The aim of the study was to assess the health behavior of working persons and to obtain opinions on the value of health among occupationally-active persons.

Material and methods. The studies were conducted among working people who, in the months from February to March 2018, reported for periodic examinations to an Occupational Medicine Outpatient Clinic in a Nonpublic Healthcare Facility in Kielce. Two standardized questionnaires were used in the study: The Health Behavior Inventory and the List of Health Criteria.

Results. Women score higher on the HBI scale than men. In addition, education proved to be an important determinant of health behaviors. Respondents with primary education present a lower level of health behaviors than those with higher education. The analysis of our own studies shows that the respondents attach the highest importance to health defined as a state, a property and a purpose. For the respondents, being healthy means: “to feel good”, “not to feel any pain”, “to have all parts of the body in good condition”, “to accept oneself and know one’s capabilities” or “not to come down with illnesses, maybe with flu or indigestion at most”.

Conclusions. The main activities of long-term health education in the workplace should take into account the individual needs of workers, especially those elements which, in the workers’ assessment, constitute their own definition of health and health determinants.

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Disease Knowledge and Treatment Adherence among Adult Patients with Thalassemia: A Cross-sectional Correlational Study


Aim. To investigate the disease knowledge and treatment adherence among adult patients with thalassemia.

Material and methods. A cross-sectional correlational study was carried out with a convenience sample of 100 adult patients with thalassemia from a university teaching hospital in Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. The Disease Knowledge about Thalassemia Major, the Treatment Adherence Scale, and sociodemographic survey were completed by participants. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 22. Descriptive and inferential statistics and Pearson correlations were performed.

Results. The participants had a moderate level of disease knowledge (M = 15.59, SD = 2.30) and a low level of treatment adherence (M = 3.91, SD = 1.83). There was also a weak but significant positive relationship between disease knowledge and treatment adherence (r = 0.297, P = 0.041). A significant difference in treatment adherence mean scores was found among participants with different monthly incomes (P = 0.05).

Conclusions. Knowledge gained from this study may be useful in improving nurses’ understanding of the effects of providing practical knowledge on treatment adherence. Educational strategies/interventions programs may be required to improve knowledge and adherence to treatment among thalassemia patients. Longitudinal studies are also needed to test for moderators and mediators of relationships of disease knowledge and treatment adherence.

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The battle with uneven opponent – Sudden Infant Death Syndrome


SIDS is one of the biggest problems of modern medicine. In the diagnosis of SIDS, we take into account all possible diseases that may be the cause of death, as well as factors indicating an accident or murder. The etiology of SIDS is not yet known. There are several pathogenetic concepts, most of which refer to pathophysiological changes associated with nervous system hypoplasia. The most important risk factors include the effects of tobacco smoke, obstetric history, and incorrect sleep position. The role of risk factors in the pathogenesis of SIDS and their interdependence is still the subject of many studies. There are many theories developed on this subject, but none have been supported by scientific research and which is extremely difficult to carry out in this group of newborns. In most cases, medical help finds a newborn already dead, so it is difficult to say what is the main cause or marker of cot death. A considerable success in preventing the onset of sudden infant death syndrome turned out to be educational campaigns for parents - in order to follow up, an information leaflet was prepared with the basic recommendations in the prevention of SIDS. Among the parents of newborn children there are still many controversial opinions about risk factors in the onset of sudden infant death syndrome, the article contains and explains the meaning of individual activities that are considered to predispose to SIDS.

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Determinants of health behaviors in individuals of medical and non-medical professions


Aim. Determination of health behaviors in the group of people performing medical and non-medical professions.

Material and methods. The research covered 598 individuals divided into two groups: those performing medical professions (group M, n = 305) and non-medical (group P; n = 293). Standardized tools were used: Health Behavior Inventory, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale - version B, General Self-Efficacy Scale on risk factors and prevention of civilization diseases (own authorship). The controls were subjected to measurement of blood pressure as well as their height and body mass tests.

Results. In group M, the level of self-efficacy, the location of health control in terms of the influence of the others and the chance, age, incidence of cardiovascular diseases in the father, smoking and the level of mean systolic blood pressure explain 17.5% of the variability of health behavior. In group P, the level of self-efficacy, location of health control in terms of the influence of the others and the chance, monthly net income per a family member, the occurrence of neoplasms in siblings, smoking, average blood pressure and the level of knowledge about risk factors and prevention of civilization diseases explain 27.9% of the variance of the health behavior variable.

Conclusions. There is a diversification of selected determinants of health behaviors in the group of individuals performing medical and non-medical professions, with their stronger impact on non-medical professionals (17.5% vs. 27.9% of their variability).

Open access