This article sketches the cultural significance that garden manuals had in England, from exemplifying a pleasurable and an aesthetic activity to encouraging the setting up of a profitable business. By investigating gardening manuals and treatises from the period, this study argues that eighteenth-century gardening manuals played an important role in shaping the cultural meanings of English gardens, in conveying “a practical knowledge of gardening, to gentlemen and young professors, who delight in that useful and agreeable study” (Abercrombie, The Preface, 1767) and in producing an original type of discourse which was employed to describe and represent the newly created professions.
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Some knowledge of the publishers’ strategy is useful for understanding the translation process. Besides literary translators, the publishing industry uses translators whose specialty is hardly known. There is therefore no specific training in this area, yet. This paper presents their work and suggests the introduction of courses in intersemiotic translation. Such courses would help translators specialising in the non literary sector of the publishing industry to deal with the layout of the book, insofar as it bears on the translation process. This paper also hopes to convince the layman to revisit the image of this profession and thus to better appreciate the work of all translators.
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The objective of this paper is to formulate an acceptable definition of teacher quality based on effective use of time during the teaching process. Assessing teacher quality is hampered by the complexity of intersecting criteria in teaching profession. Quality is often defined broadly and in general concepts isolated from the actual classroom processes. Society, politicians, parents, educators proclaim that the quality of teachers matters, but it is difficult to come to a consensus, which markers of teacher quality can be measured reliably and which of these elements do have crucial impact on teaching. The major goal of this paper is to clarify what efficiency means in the teaching-learning process if time is taken as the main criterion; how knowledge can be defined and how teacher efficiency can be used as an objective marker of quality in teaching profession.
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in Transport and Traffic Engineering Profession and Science - Strani jezik u saobraćajnoj struci i nauci. Gordana
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