In the early 1990s, an employment reduction in the State Forests caused the lowest-income employees to be transferred to external service providers. At the same time, due to the lack of students applying in this field, numerous vocational schools were shut down. At present, professions in the forestry sector are characterized by work under harsh conditions combined with low pay and are thus rarely chosen by young people. As a result, this service sector’s average age is increasing very visibly. The aim of this paper was to gather information about the motivation of the students who did decide to begin training in this field and their professional aspirations. Our work is based on data obtained from forestry schools and a 9-question survey. Questions in the survey concerned the motivation to become an operator of forest machines, family traditions related to this profession, professional interests and plans for the future. The data analysis revealed that forestry education at the level of vocational schools is practically inexistent. For the past six years, the only unit that trained new forestry workers continuously was the Forestry School in Rogoziniec. The school’s graduates primarily pick up the profession of harvester operator and forwarder operator. Even more alarming is the fact that most of this school’s students are aware of the present employment conditions in Poland and are considering going abroad to find jobs. Therefore, in order to retain the newly trained workforce, it is necessary to improve the attractiveness of the forestry professions and to introduce systemic solutions for the development of qualifications and competences, which should be of interest to both forestry entrepreneurs and the State Forests.
Pia Minixhofer, Rosemarie Stangl, Andreas Baumgarten, Sigbert Huber, Martin Weigl, Peter Tramberend and Sophie Zechmeister-Boltenstern
to grasp the complex issue could help to alert people over all ages and professions to the urgency of the matter. This should further on encourage the application of the various restoration and recultivation options and make the benefits for sustainable land use management more apparent.
In case of restoration, soil quality is a major issue. Although only a small proportion of known brownfields is polluted, a consistent assessment should show the restoration extent, any long-term impact, or pollution source, such as heavy metals or pesticides, as well as
Part 1: data cleaning, preparation and exploratory analyses
Andrea Harnos, Péter Fehérvári and Tibor Csörgő
Allaire, J. J., Cheng, J., Xie, Y., McPherson, J., Chang, W., Allen, J., Wickham, H. & Hyndman, R. 2015. rmarkdown: Dynamic documents for R. R package version 0.5.1. – http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=rmarkdown
American Statistical Association 1999. Ethical guidelines for statistical practice. – Alexandria (Virginia): American Statistical Association. Available: http:\\www.amstat.org\profession\index.cfm?fuse-action=ethicalstatistics
Brown, M. & Oschadleus, D. 2008. The ongoing role of bird ringing in science – a review. – In
Tatiana Grigor’evna Nefedova and Nikita Evgen’evich Pokrovsky
This article considers the salient features of counter-urbanization, which take place when urban residents, during the summer months, move to live in their second homes or their dachas [country homes or summer cottages]. Due to the social forces that are the result of incomplete urbanization, class polarization, and the rapid growth of major city centers, there are two powerful oppositional flows of migration taking place today in Russia. The first is centripetal migration or the movement of rural populations to large cities. The second form of migration is centrifugal migration or counterurbanization, which is the relocation of urban populations to rural areas. The article gives a theoretical overview of a new vision of migration as a part of modern flexible ‘liquid’ mobility, which enables urban residents to be constantly ‘on the move’, migrating between their urban apartments and suburban or distant dachas. A theoretical sociological background provides the field research, presented in the article, with an understanding of the realm of meanings of de-urbanization in a short and long historical run and in perspective. Russian men and women, who work in various professions due to advances in telecommunication technologies, are able to spend some extended periods at their dachas where they simultaneously work and enjoy the natural beauty and countryside. The different types of dachas in Russia that are either close to cities or in remote regions are examined. The case study of dacha counter-urbanization in the periphery region of Kostroma oblast' considers: 1) various features of the return counter-urbanization to remote dacha and 2) the social, economic and cultural effects that these dacha settlements have had on both the urban and rural residents.
Lea Ranacher, Kathrin Höfferer, Miriam Lettner, Franziska Hesser, Tobias Stern, Romana Rauter and Peter Schwarzbauer
. Communicating new wood-based innovations’ benefits to consumers places great demands on the producers in understanding consumer needs ( Ljungberg and Edwards, 2003 ; Karana et al., 2010 ). However, the perception of an innovation can vary strongly between individuals and over the course of time ( Karana et al., 2010 ). In the context of wood-based innovations on B2B-markets, Roos et al. (2014) found that different professions of the companies purchasing the innovation have different priorities regarding the material selection. Similarly, potential future opinion leaders
This study outlines the main motives of foresters opposing the enlargement of the Białowieża National Park to include areas managed by the State Forests Holding. The motives were identified using discourse analysis tools based on the semistructured interviews with 36 people representing various groups of actors engaged in the discussion on the management of the Białowieża Forest. The main motives I found are connected to: (1) a vision of how nature should be and the foresters’ mission; (2) fear of losing employment or getting a worse job; (3) the high esteem of the forester profession in local communities and an inferior vocational status of the national park employees; (4) defending the professional prestige of foresters and the State Forests Holding; (5) competition with national parks over natural areas; (6) forest science; (7) the wish to continue hunting in the Białowieża Forest; (8) bottom-up pressure on the State Forests Holding employees. The major conflict potential in the discourse around the Białowieża Forest is connected with the perception of its unique natural values and methods of protection. As a result, two opposing coalitions have formed: one supporting forestry interests and one encouraging conservation. The discourse of the forestry-supporting coalition is strengthened by an epistemic community of forest scientists. Some arguments presented by the foresters pushing for a continuation of forest management in Białowieża also indicate the involvement of path dependency, which, in combination with large differences between the coalitions, does not allow for optimism regarding the resolution of the conflict.
On 31st of December 1895 Gyula Wlassics (1852-1937), minister of religion and education, published his Decree No 72 039, which allowed women to study medical science, pharmacy and humanities at universities. In Kolozsvár Gizella Kárpáti was the first woman who registered at the Faculty of Medicine of Ferenc József University.
Gizella Kárpáti was born in Kolozsvár on 3rd August 1884. After finishing secondary school in June 1902, in the autumn of the same year she registered at the Faculty of Medicine. The marks she got at the university examinations in the following 10 semesters proved that she could cope with her task. In the years spent at the university she met medical student József Szabó (born in 1882) whom she married later. They both started their medical career at Károly Lechner’s Neuro-Psychiatry Institute. From 1909 Gizella Kárpáti was a payed assistant, from 1911 she became assistant lecturer. Her husband became an assistant lecturer from the year 1908, then he was appointed lecturer and then honorary lecturer. Meanwhile he had to go to the front where he was followed by his wife. In 1919, after the professors of the university refused the act of swearing the oath of allegiance, they both made their escape from Kolozsvár together with the greater part of their fellow professors. After a short time they settled in Szeged, where József Szabó was appointed university professor. Here he published his book „Elmekórtan” in 1925. In the 1927-28 academic year he became dean, then vice-dean of the Faculty of Medicine, but in the year 1929 he died unexpectedly. In Szeged, Gizella Kárpáti being engaged in bringing up her two children, did not work as a physician. One of her children, Miklós, continued his parents’ profession, and became a physician. Gizella and her children returned to Kolozsvár for a short time, between 1940-1944, then they moved to Budapest and finally they settled in Szeged again. In 1929 József Szabó and in 1953 Gizella Kárpáti were entombed in one of the graves of honour of the Szeged central cemetery.
fauna of a small and artificial urban lake. Croatian Journal of Fisheries, 75, 51-57.
Piria, M. (2013): History and role of the journal “Croatian Journal of Fisheries (Ribarstvo)” in research and development of fisheries profession“. 48th Croatian and 8th International Symposium on Agriculture , Dubrovnik, Hrvatska, Book of Abstracts, 216-217
Piria, M., Rajeev, R., Freyhof, J. (2015): Editorial 2015: Efforts towards better quality in the Croatian Journal of Fisheries (Ribarstvo). Croatian Journal of Fisheries, 73, 1-5.
Tasevska, O., Špoljar, M
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