In the early 1990s, an employment reduction in the State Forests caused the lowest-income employees to be transferred to external service providers. At the same time, due to the lack of students applying in this field, numerous vocational schools were shut down. At present, professions in the forestry sector are characterized by work under harsh conditions combined with low pay and are thus rarely chosen by young people. As a result, this service sector’s average age is increasing very visibly. The aim of this paper was to gather information about the motivation of the students who did decide to begin training in this field and their professional aspirations. Our work is based on data obtained from forestry schools and a 9-question survey. Questions in the survey concerned the motivation to become an operator of forest machines, family traditions related to this profession, professional interests and plans for the future. The data analysis revealed that forestry education at the level of vocational schools is practically inexistent. For the past six years, the only unit that trained new forestry workers continuously was the Forestry School in Rogoziniec. The school’s graduates primarily pick up the profession of harvester operator and forwarder operator. Even more alarming is the fact that most of this school’s students are aware of the present employment conditions in Poland and are considering going abroad to find jobs. Therefore, in order to retain the newly trained workforce, it is necessary to improve the attractiveness of the forestry professions and to introduce systemic solutions for the development of qualifications and competences, which should be of interest to both forestry entrepreneurs and the State Forests.
The article focuses on the presentation of database “Protected areas in Poland,” complete with information resources and available options for data collecting, storing, sharing, and searching. Possibilities for using the database as a tool for ecological education of young people were presented. Utility of the database was discussed as a comprehensive source of information for other social groups and representatives of professions that deal with environmental resources and their management.
Trends in biodiversity research over two decades: paradigmatic finders keepers?
Biodiversity research has been criticized for displaying the "founder effect" and not deviating in terms of study topic from the course set by its founding terrestrial ecologists more than three decades ago. I tested this hypothesis by examining over four thousand papers published between 1987 and 2008 in three international journals, Conservation Biology, Biological Conservation, and Biodiversity and Conservation. Analysis of temporal trends in types of organisms studied, types of ecosystems studied, types of methodologies used, and types of stresses investigated, revealed that there has been little movement away from the origins of the profession as being primarily concerned with the effects of forest habitat loss on charismatic terrestrial megafauna.
Tatiana Grigor’evna Nefedova and Nikita Evgen’evich Pokrovsky
This article considers the salient features of counter-urbanization, which take place when urban residents, during the summer months, move to live in their second homes or their dachas [country homes or summer cottages]. Due to the social forces that are the result of incomplete urbanization, class polarization, and the rapid growth of major city centers, there are two powerful oppositional flows of migration taking place today in Russia. The first is centripetal migration or the movement of rural populations to large cities. The second form of migration is centrifugal migration or counterurbanization, which is the relocation of urban populations to rural areas. The article gives a theoretical overview of a new vision of migration as a part of modern flexible ‘liquid’ mobility, which enables urban residents to be constantly ‘on the move’, migrating between their urban apartments and suburban or distant dachas. A theoretical sociological background provides the field research, presented in the article, with an understanding of the realm of meanings of de-urbanization in a short and long historical run and in perspective. Russian men and women, who work in various professions due to advances in telecommunication technologies, are able to spend some extended periods at their dachas where they simultaneously work and enjoy the natural beauty and countryside. The different types of dachas in Russia that are either close to cities or in remote regions are examined. The case study of dacha counter-urbanization in the periphery region of Kostroma oblast' considers: 1) various features of the return counter-urbanization to remote dacha and 2) the social, economic and cultural effects that these dacha settlements have had on both the urban and rural residents.
Lea Ranacher, Kathrin Höfferer, Miriam Lettner, Franziska Hesser, Tobias Stern, Romana Rauter and Peter Schwarzbauer
. Communicating new wood-based innovations’ benefits to consumers places great demands on the producers in understanding consumer needs ( Ljungberg and Edwards, 2003 ; Karana et al., 2010 ). However, the perception of an innovation can vary strongly between individuals and over the course of time ( Karana et al., 2010 ). In the context of wood-based innovations on B2B-markets, Roos et al. (2014) found that different professions of the companies purchasing the innovation have different priorities regarding the material selection. Similarly, potential future opinion leaders
This study outlines the main motives of foresters opposing the enlargement of the Białowieża National Park to include areas managed by the State Forests Holding. The motives were identified using discourse analysis tools based on the semistructured interviews with 36 people representing various groups of actors engaged in the discussion on the management of the Białowieża Forest. The main motives I found are connected to: (1) a vision of how nature should be and the foresters’ mission; (2) fear of losing employment or getting a worse job; (3) the high esteem of the forester profession in local communities and an inferior vocational status of the national park employees; (4) defending the professional prestige of foresters and the State Forests Holding; (5) competition with national parks over natural areas; (6) forest science; (7) the wish to continue hunting in the Białowieża Forest; (8) bottom-up pressure on the State Forests Holding employees. The major conflict potential in the discourse around the Białowieża Forest is connected with the perception of its unique natural values and methods of protection. As a result, two opposing coalitions have formed: one supporting forestry interests and one encouraging conservation. The discourse of the forestry-supporting coalition is strengthened by an epistemic community of forest scientists. Some arguments presented by the foresters pushing for a continuation of forest management in Białowieża also indicate the involvement of path dependency, which, in combination with large differences between the coalitions, does not allow for optimism regarding the resolution of the conflict.
I.A. Kyriánová, J. Drnek, I. Langrová, P. Peřinková and S. Nechybová
the preservation of biodiversity in Australia: a role for zoos and the veterinary profession. Australian Veterinary Journal, 75, 568–574. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-0813.1997.tb14196.x.
Kodádková A, Kváč M, Ditrich O, Sak B, Xiao L (2010): Cryptosporidium muris in a reticulated giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata ). Journal of Parasitology, 96, 211–212.
Krecek RC, Boomker J, Penzhorn BL, Scheepers L (1990): Internal parasites of giraffes ( Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis ) from Etosha National Park, Namibia. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 26, 395
profesijas standarts (The Standard of Profession of an Assistant for People with Hearing Disorders). Retrieved March 1, 2019, from https://visc.gov.lv/profizglitiba/dokumenti/standarti/ps0461.pdf (In Latvian)
28. VISC (2017, March). Individuālā pieeja katram skolēnam vispārējās izglītības iestādēs (Individual Approach to Every Student in General Education Institutions). Retrieved February 2, 2019, from https://www.tip.edu.lv/media/files/Ieteikumi_versija_14032017.pdf (In Latvian)
29. Voitkane, V. (2017). Inclusive Education in Italy. Proceedings of the
Paulina Szmielińska-Pietraszek and Wioletta Szymańska
On today's labour markets, the basic characteristics of the quality of the labour force is knowledge, qualifications, skills and experience possessed by it. Today, employers are looking for employees with high interpersonal competences, manners, responsible, hard-working, independent, honest and having the ability to learn quickly. For this, as an asset, they add the higher education, preferably directional, creativity and experience. The taken research area is characterized by economic lag in comparison with Gdańsk agglomeration area, as well as with other regions. In the article the reference was made to the declared needs of employers towards future employees, based on interviews conducted in 101 entities of the city of Słupsk and Słupsk county. The main aim of the research was to determine the usefulness of geographic knowledge for the local labour market. And thus indicating the possibility of increasing the attractiveness of geographical graduates in the labour market. Among the needs of employers of Słupsk labour market in accordance with the overall national trend, there is a large deficit of soft competencies, but also, among others, the gap typically professional related to information technology and engineering skills have been diagnosed. There has been a large gap identified in the ability to apply the knowledge (academic) in practical activities, which is called by the employers 'the professional experience'. In contrast, the studies on the usefulness of (the attractiveness of the labour market) competencies that are possible to learn while studying geography, showed the particular importance, valuable for the modern labour market skills of searching, collecting and processing of information. Currently in Poland, even in conditions of high unemployment existing mismatch between qualification and professional structure of supply and demand for labour can be observed. In the labour market, the presence is noted at the same time, the deficit and surplus professions and employers tend to have difficulty in recruiting people with specific skills and vocational skills. Not innovative small entities (which predominate in the structure of entities, inter alia, in Słupsk local labour market) are not able to take over the education of strictly professional competences due to a lack of capital. The role of practical education courses for universities is visible here. They are accumulating equipment and supplies for practical training which may in a flexible way try to respond to changing economic conditions.