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Historical metallurgical activities and environment pollution at the substratum level of the Main Market Square in Krakow

used to melt small amounts of silver and other metals and their alloys, which is evidenced by traces of silver and bronze discovered in it and identified by spectral analysis. This is a direct proof of casting activities in the old Krakow and its surroundings. Before the mid-13th century there were already workshops in Krakow, satisfying local needs. Krakow was a major centre of production and trade. Here, amongst many other professions, were metalworkers — makers of ornaments and jewellery, everyday objects and church equipment from non-ferrous metals: goldsmiths

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Reasons for choosing geography studies. Comparative analysis of two academic centres: Warsaw and Kielce

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to compare the reasons for choosing a degree in geography by students starting their studies in two academic centres: Warsaw and Kielce. The first is a big city with rich traditions and one of the best academic centres in Poland, while the second is regional, much smaller but developing. In the research, special attention was paid to the reasons for choosing geography as a major, a variety of ideas considering future job and professional prospects open to geography graduates as well as attitudes toward the profession of a geography teacher. The research involved interviews with first and second-year students in both centres.

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The 18th century Lublin in the eyes of a military engineer. Fortifications and security measures for the negotiations on the map of Lublin created by C. d’Örken and modern evidence confirming their existence

Abstract

Just as contemporary cartographic works, old maps were usually made for specific purposes, e.g. related to taxation, propaganda or military objectives. C. d’Örken’s map of Lublin of 1716 is an example of a cartographic work created for military purposes, as it was made in the context of negotiations of the Tarnogród Confederation. The author of the map focused on the thematic content – he marked control zones, as well as military outposts, and accommodation sites. In many instances, the base content is presented with little attention to detail. There are a few exceptions to this rule, with fortifications being the most noticeable one. It was most likely motivated by the author’s profession, as he was a military engineer. Still, although Lublin has never been a particularly well-fortified city, the aforementioned content of the map perfectly reflects not only the former shape of the city space, but also its contemporary organisation. This article, due to its detailed description of selected works and the methodology involving the use of old cartographic materials, can be used as an important source material for archaeological, restoration and regeneration works.

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An accuracy assessment of European Soil Sealing Dataset (SSL2009): Stara Miłosna area, Poland - a case study

References Arnold, C & Gibbons, C 1996, ‘Impervious surface coverage: the emergence of a key environmental indicator’ Journal of the American Planning Association, 62(2), pp. 243–258. Atkinson, P, Foody, G & Curran, P 2000, ‘Assessing the ground data requirements for regional–scale remote sensing’ International Journal of Remote Sensing, pp. 2571–2587. Bauer, M, Heinert, N, Doyle, J, & Fei, Y 2004, Impervious surface mapping and change monitoring using Landsat remote sensing , ASPRS – 70 years if service to the profession, Denver, Colorado

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The saga of women’s status in ancient Indian civilization

Dhárma , Artha and Káma , but even Mokṣa ” ( Nandal & Rajnish 2014 , p. 22) in Rig Vedic India. Women of the early Vedic period enjoyed absolute economic freedom. They engaged in professions for increasing health and well-being, as well as in teaching professions as achāryās in Rig Vedic society ( Altekar 1938 ). During this period, women also earned money through the spinning and weaving of clothes at home, while also helping their husbands in agricultural activities. However, the Vedāḥ has emphasized women’s greatly restricted right to the inheritance of

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Functional and spatial changes of souks in Morocco’s imperial cities in the context of tourism development

city’s main mosque, which is at the centre of the medina, and is structured in such a way as to observe the separation of the clean from the unclean, creating concentric zones around the population centre’s main mosque. In its vicinity, perfumes and incense are located because, according to an interpretation of the Quran, they are considered sacred; while farthest away are the workshops for the unclean professions, for example, dyers and paint mixers ( Dettmann 1969 ). The rich history of Morocco has left an abundance of cultural wealth ( Jędrusik 2010 ). Currently

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Winery regions as the oldest cultural landscapes: remnants, signs, and metamorphoses

transformation of winery regions include systems and forms of ownership related to land and material goods as well as demographic changes (rising population density in a specific area). The preservation of old professions as well as the social, material and professional structures (wine-makers) characterizing inhabitants of a given area also play an important role. Socio-economic factors also include the susceptibility of certain societies to adopting wine consumption patterns typical of Western Europe (e.g., serving wine to accompany meals). Wine is becoming fashionable, and

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