Quality Assurance (QA) of Higher Education (HE) is a major objective of the “Bologna Process”. However, QA often tends to assess more the “process” than the “contents” of the education: therefore, especially in subjects that lead towards a “profession” (“engineering” first among them), the practice of “accreditation” is also increasing throughout the world. “Accreditation” can follow the “programme” and the “institutional” approach, that are not in contrast, but can usefully complement each other. “Programme accreditation” of an engineering programme can be identified with the process “to ensure the suitability of that programme as the entry route to the engineering profession”, and defined as “pre-professional accreditation”. Recent European initiatives along these lines will be illustrated: (i) the EUR-ACE® system for the “European accreditation of engineering programmes”, (ii) the “European Alliance for Subject-Specific and Professional Accreditation and Quality Assurance” (EASPA), (iii) QUACING, the new Italian Agency for QA and Accreditation of engineering programmes.
- Loi n° 2013-404 du 17 mai 2013 ouvrant le mariage aux couples de personnes de même sexe, Retrived from : https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000027414540&categorieLien=id
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Masakatsu Matsuishi, Kazuya Takemata and Sumio Nakamura
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The objective of this article is to illustrate the issues and challenges which the higher education system in Bulgaria faces, with a particular accent on the phenomenon “education per kilogram”. The latter describes, in a popular language, the up-scaling of the university graduation, related to the mass proliferation of the higher education institutions (HEIs), the facilitated access to enrolment through paid tuitions, etc. The big quantity of HEIs in the country is in a mismatch with the low percentage of GDP which the government dedicates to education. The number of HEIs is also disproportionate against its population size - 54 HEIs in Bulgaria for population of 7.2 million. The research methodology includes a desktop study based on national statistical data and data from the governmentally-supported university rating system. An empirical survey, conducted among 250 tertiary education students enrolled in four Bulgarian universities, is a valuable contribution towards disclosing the pros and cons of the teaching practices in the tertiary education in the country. The first chapter describes at large the “education per kilogram” issue with regard to its possible origins, variations and consequences for the misbalance of labour market demand for certain qualifications and the universities supplies of qualified individuals. The second chapter reveals a comparative analysis by professional fields possible through the Ministry of Education and Science’s university rating system, i.e. students’ preferences for disciplines, universities and professions; the graduates’ professional fulfilment and how the income of the recent diploma-holders is a function of attending a particular HEI. The third chapter presents a sociological survey conducted among students in four Bulgarian universities which demonstrates learners’ attitudes towards various aspects of training, teaching methods and involvement in research assignments in the context of tertiary education.
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