Background: It is believed that social responsibility, the value that is strongly involved in the contemporary corporate behaviour, has also become the core value for public relations practitioners and their associations. However, there are ethical doubts concerning the question to whom a PR practitioner is actually responsible (or loyal) in the first place: to the client, the employer, the public, or society in general?
Objectives: This research aims to describe how social responsibility is articulated in the documents that can be considered as the crown of public relations ethics – the codes of ethics – and additionally, how the value of loyalty corresponds to the value of social responsibility.
Methods/Approach: The research is based on the content analyses of 13 codes of ethics that are delivered by 18 public relations associations at the international and the national level in the USA and the European Union.
Results: Although the phrase “social responsibility” is not mentioned in codes directly, the value of social responsibility is present in very diverse ways. When the value of loyalty came into the correlation with social responsibility, the research has shown that these values exist as a separate principle.
Conclusions: The public relations are a profession that tends to be socially responsible and tends to show that loyalty to clients and organizations is subordinated to public and social responsibility. Thus, the codes show that contemporary public relations, at least at the normative level, approach the two-way symmetric model and mostly promote “idealistic social role” of public relations.
Standard labor market models predict that the likelihood of employment increases, hours worked increase, and individuals transition from less-skilled and temporary jobs to more skilled and more stable employment as they age. I examine the association between age and transactional sex work using national household surveys from Zambia, one of the few settings with general population surveys asking women about transactional sex and a relatively high documented prevalence of employment in transactional sex. My results indicate that the likelihood of employment in transactional sex sharply falls with age. Increased employment opportunities outside of transactional sex do not appear to explain the transactional sex employment-age profile and marital status appears to explain only a portion of it. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that clients prefer younger transactional sex workers and suggest that policymakers implement interventions designed to reduce client demand for younger females.
Kirchler, E., & Maciejovsky, B. (2001). Tax Compliance within the Context of Gain and Loss Situations, Expected and Current Asset Position, and Profession. Journal of Economic Psychology, 22(2), 173-194. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-4870(01)00028-9
Kong, F. & Wang, C. (2014). The Determinants of Tax Evasion : A Literature Review. Gdanskie Studia Azji Wschodniej 5, 70-78. Retrieved from http
. Specifically, the key variables employed are occupation, citizenship status of immediate relatives, country of birth, receipt of public benefits, and age at entry. Workers with certain occupations that require licensing or background checks, such as legal professions, police and fire, some medical professions, are assumed to be authorized, as well as individuals in government or in the military. Anecdotal evidence shows that there are some unauthorized workers in the military. Nevertheless, the size of this group is very small. Clearly, while occupation is only useful for
professions where women often suffer negative productivity signals arising from gender stereotypes, there is hardly any comparable stigma in service-related professions. In sum, this might trigger a lower overedcuation risk of female graduates in the field of services.
The study at hand aims to verify the linkage between job-specificity and overeducation in a consistent methodological and data framework. In particular, we hypothesize that those study programs that train graduates for a more clearly defined range of occupations are associated with a lower overeducation
Background: A systematic and continuous product policy management is important for a company's competitiveness and the question is to what extent and in what way companies engaged in the furniture manufacturing sector actually apply them. Objectives: The objective of this paper is to explore to what extent the design profession is involved in the product policy and teams which define market properties of products in the furniture industry. Methods: In order to achieve the objectives of this paper, the Model for Exploring the Role of Design in Defining Market Properties and the Product Policy in the Furniture Industry has been devised. Two surveys have been conducted, measuring the level of involvement of the design profession in the product policy, as well as the involvement of designers in the work of teams which define market properties of products in the furniture industry. Results: The design profession is not systematically and continuously involved in the function of the product policy as the key component in programming a company's development and growth in the furniture industry. Conclusions: Companies engaged in furniture manufacturing should consider the possibility of involving design managers in coordination and management of product development, as well as in communication coordination on the manufacturer - designer level.
Mirjana Pejić Bach, Marjana Merkač Skok and Dalia Suša
1. Ahmed, I., Nawaz, M. M., Ahman, Z., Shaukat, M. Z., Usman, A., & Wasim-ul-Rehman, A. N. (2010). Determinants of students’ entrepreneurial career intentions. European Journal of Social Sciences, 16 (2), 14–22.
2. Beeftink, F., Van Eerde, W., Rutte, C. G., & Bertrand, J. W. M. (2012). Being successful in a creative profession: The role of innovative cognitive style, self-regulation, and self-efficacy. Journal of Business and Psychology , 27 (1), 71–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10869-011-9214-9
3. Bjørnskov, C., & Foss, N. (2013
(2004). Competition in Professions. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20140402172414/http://oft.gov.uk/shared_oft/reports/professional_bodies/oft328.pdf .
Robinson J., Acemoglu D. & Johnson S. (2004). Institutions as the Fundamental Cause of Long-Run Growth . NBER working paper series no. w10481. Cambridge, Massachusetts: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Roper S., Love J., Rieger P. & Bourke J. (2015). Innovation in legal services . https://research.legalservicesboard.org.uk/wp-content/media/Innovation-Report.pdf .
Semple, N. (2015
In everyday lives, we more and more use different technology products to make our lives easier and faster. We often do not realise that we are switching our lifestyles to the online platform - we do everything mostly online - meet and communicate with others, watch videos and listen to favourite songs, choose and buy different things. The main question is - can we trust everything that we see on the screen? Is the explanation of “trust” the same in real life and in online sphere? Authors of the paper compare the concept of “trust” in offline trade market with that in online trading. The following methods were used - literature study and analysis, consumer survey and statistical analysis. Consumer survey is already in the process and is to be continued during the next 2 years with the purpose to compare changes through years. Participants of the survey are the inhabitants of Latvia of different age groups, location, profession, etc. The authors have continued the survey to make it more complete and to find out new tendencies. It is possible to use the research results in both ways ‒ theoretical and practical in respect of choosing an effective communication with consumers, in creating a long-term relationship with them, and in regard to increasing the customer loyalty level and level of “trust”.