Standard labor market models predict that the likelihood of employment increases, hours worked increase, and individuals transition from less-skilled and temporary jobs to more skilled and more stable employment as they age. I examine the association between age and transactional sex work using national household surveys from Zambia, one of the few settings with general population surveys asking women about transactional sex and a relatively high documented prevalence of employment in transactional sex. My results indicate that the likelihood of employment in transactional sex sharply falls with age. Increased employment opportunities outside of transactional sex do not appear to explain the transactional sex employment-age profile and marital status appears to explain only a portion of it. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that clients prefer younger transactional sex workers and suggest that policymakers implement interventions designed to reduce client demand for younger females.
professions where women often suffer negative productivity signals arising from gender stereotypes, there is hardly any comparable stigma in service-related professions. In sum, this might trigger a lower overedcuation risk of female graduates in the field of services.
The study at hand aims to verify the linkage between job-specificity and overeducation in a consistent methodological and data framework. In particular, we hypothesize that those study programs that train graduates for a more clearly defined range of occupations are associated with a lower overeducation
. Specifically, the key variables employed are occupation, citizenship status of immediate relatives, country of birth, receipt of public benefits, and age at entry. Workers with certain occupations that require licensing or background checks, such as legal professions, police and fire, some medical professions, are assumed to be authorized, as well as individuals in government or in the military. Anecdotal evidence shows that there are some unauthorized workers in the military. Nevertheless, the size of this group is very small. Clearly, while occupation is only useful for
Mirjana Pejić Bach, Marjana Merkač Skok and Dalia Suša
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This paper presents the results of an empirical study designed to map German language proficiency among students at Czech universities of business and management. The results of this empirical survey can be summarised as follows. First, the ability of students at Czech universities of business and management to communicate in German is poor, and exceeds the general German language proficiency of the Czech population only to an insignificant extent. Second, the school environment (the opportunity to learn the language, compulsory subject, language study motivation) has a decisive influence on the respondents’ ability to communicate in German. Third, nearly three-quarters of the respondents perceive German as a language that is very or rather important for their profession and career growth. Fourth, almost two-thirds of the respondents consider the role played by a university of business and management in the improvement of German language proficiency rather or very important. In conclusion, the study proposes directions for the potential development of the national educational system in the area of German language proficiency of university graduates in business and management in the Czech Republic, with an emphasis on the concept of content and language integrated learning (CLIL). We believe that the survey results are also very important from the point of view of enterprises operating in the Czech Republic because of the very close economic relations between the Czech Republic and German-speaking countries.
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