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to rally policy-makers, bureau- crats and intellectuals alike behind an idea still highly relevant as a concept of African self-respect, dignity and pride.3 Inspired by earlier notion of self reli- ance in the sense of African ownership over Africa’s aff airs, the African Renais- sance provided a philosophical basis for any policy formulation. Parallel to this philosophical dimension eff orts aimed to position South Africa in terms of its foreign and economic policy in a leadership role within the African continent.4 Within this process, Mbeki’s foreign policy

presen- tations of promises with whom each party wants to govern. Politicians aim to increase their share against all competitors; even those ideologically close, and always justify their silence by saying that “only the voter will decide how the next government will look”. Conversely , they rather stress with whom they will never form a government, oft en the mutual incompatibility among parties is so complex it would seem there is mathematically no chance for any government, barring the unlikely gain of majority for one party. In light of this and numer- ous

of general rules known as formal law, and excludes legislation either directly aimed at particular people, or at enabling anybody to use the coercive power of the state for such discrimination. It means, not that everything is regulated by law, but, on the contrary, that the coercive power of the state can be used only in cases defined in advance by the law and in such a way that it can be foreseen how it will be used ( Friedrich August Hayek, 2006 ). but in all state actions that have effects on a whole nation. Even though Hayek’s idea on that kind of

Information and Communication in Public Administration in the Context of Management Control Functioning in the Public Finance Sector in Poland Ambroży Mituś Department of Public Law, Cracow University of Economics, Poland MITUŚ Ambroży. Information and Communication in Public Administration in the Context of Management Control Functioning in the Public Finance Sector in Poland. International and Comparative Law Review, 2016, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 181–196. DOI: 10.1515/iclr-2016-0023. Summary: The aim of this article is to present the

decision according to their national rules. We made proposals that are as ambitious as possible, but as pragmatic as needed to achieve gradual improvements already for the 2019 European elections. It is unfortunately true that the connection between national parties and their affiliated European political parties has not been sufficiently presented to the electorate in the past and their visibility remains low. The goal of the current reform proposal is to break the deadlock, by giving European Political Parties a greater appearance in electoral campaigning. This

sustainable common security. Too many of our dominant systems – capitalism, climate, democracy, sovereign states, even the international security system – are stressed, if not dysfunctional. Similarly, decline is apparent in the world order, the neo-liberal order, Pax Americana and the transatlantic post-war alliances. Rather than plan a coherent transformation, officials still prefer pragmatic, incremental reforms to existing arrangements (e.g. the tippy-toe approach). Like it or not, our diverse global systems and challenges tend to be “linked