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The writer’s pragmatic aims attainment in Doris Lessing’s To Room Nineteen: A cognitive linguistics view

References Bara, B. G., Tirassa, M., 2000. Neuropragmatics: brain and communication. Brain and Language , vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 10-14. Bara, B. G., 2010. Cognitive pragmatics: The mental processes of communication (translated by John Douthwaite). Cambridge: A Bradford Book. Bortolussi, M., Dixon, P., 1996. Literary communication: Effects of reader-narrator cooperation. Poetics , vol. 23, pp. 405-430. Bystrov, Y., 2014. Fractal metaphor LIFE IS A STORY in biographical narrative. Topics in Linguistics , vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1

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Research in Language
The Journal of University of Lodz
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Discourse-Pragmatic and Processing-Related Motivators of the ordering of Reason Clauses in an Academic Corpus

Language Modelling 4(2), 225-244. Rezaee, Abbas Ali and Seyyed Ehsan Golparvar. 2017. Conditional Inference Tree Modelling of Competing Motivators of the Positioning of Concessive Clauses: The Case of a Non-native Corpus. Journal of Quantitative Linguistics 24(2-3), 89-106. Saif, Shahrzad. 2006. Aiming for Positive Washback: A Case Study of International Teaching Assistants. Language Testing 23 (1). 1-34. Schoonen, Rob. et al. 2011. Modelling the Development of L1 and EFL Writing Proficiency of Secondary School Students

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Question of Problem of an Acquisition of a Foreign Language. Král'ová, Zdena: Qualitative Approximation in the system of Slovak and English Short Vowels. Ústí nad Labem: Univerzita J. E. Purkyně 2010. 120 s

K procesom osvojovania si cudzieho jazyka. Král'ová, Zdena: Kvalitatívna aproximácia v systéme slovenských a anglických krátkych vokálov. Ústí nad Labem: Univerzita J. E. Purkyně 2010. 120 s

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Actors and Actions in Prenups and Capitulaciones Matrimoniales: A Cross-Cultural Study

Actors and Actions in Prenups and Capitulaciones Matrimoniales: A Cross-Cultural Study

The investigation of a corpus of American prenuptial agreements and Spanish capitulaciones matrimoniales shows how the popularity of premarital contracts is spreading everywhere. The American and the Spanish documents, juridically diverse in many aspects, embedded in two different legal systems, belong to the genre of contracts and are classified as a type of negotiation/mediation. The lexical and semantic analysis focuses on the specialized terminology used to refer to the human actors and their actions within the documents. The aim is to discover whether and how legal, intercultural and sociological divergences emerge from the textual context. Participants play several roles in the various semantic-pragmatic units constituting the contract, being in turn considered as contracting parties, married couple, notary public, parents, esposos, padres, and otorgantes. Their actions are highlighted by a punctual and proper use of verbal constructions and speech acts, such as asserting, signing, stipulating, agreeing. The study demonstrates how actors and actions do not stand autonomously and separately: they perform and fulfil a specific pragmatic function in a precise legal and cultural context.

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Easy Way to Language Acquisition: Diminutives in Lithuanian Child Language

Easy Way to Language Acquisition: Diminutives in Lithuanian Child Language

Introduction In most languages diminutive formation is the first pattern of word formation to emerge. The main reason for this seems to be the pragmatic functions of endearment, empathy, and sympathy, which make diminutives particularly appropriate for child-centered communication. This is especially true for things belonging to the child's world, which the caretakers tend to refer to using diminutives. The frequency of diminutives in the input as well as in the output of children clearly depends on the pragmatic role of diminutives in the respective language. In addition, their greater degree of morphological productivity and transparency, as well as their phonological saliency, favors the use of diminutives (Savickienė & Dressler 2007). Research of the languages where an extensive use of diminutives was noted induced some scholars to advance the hypothesis to the effect that the use of diminutives simplifies the acquisition of nominal declension (Olmsted 1994; Savickienė 2001; Kempe et al. 2001).

Aim of the study This paper explores the hypothesis that diminutives in child-directed speech provide multiple cues for language acquisition. Diminutives in Lithuanian present an interesting case not only in terms of pragmatics and semantics (a feature which is shared by Lithuanian as well as other languages), but also from a language-specific point of view.

Materials and methods The following discussion is based on analysis of data from a longitudinal corpus of a Lithuanian girl. For the present study we have chosen to analyze the girl's speech covering the period from 1;7 to 2;6. The corpus consists of almost 35 hours of recordings. The choice of the period was influenced by the fact that the child's onset of morphological development can be dated approximately around the age of 1;7 and continues until the age of 2;6, which marks the phase of morphology proper (Savickienė 2003). The recorded speech was transcribed according to the requirements of CHILDES (MacWhinney 2000).

Results and conclusions The study suggests that the early and frequent use of diminutives by the Lithuanian child is due to the fact that it not only decreases word-ending variance (restricting the number of paradigm patterns to 3 instead of 12 declension classes), regularize stress patterns, but also facilitates the acquisition of case inflections.

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Semantics and pragmatics of the lexeme posledný [the last] in discursive contexts

Abstract

The study attempts to interpret meanings of the Slovak lexeme posledný [the last]. The study is based on the fact that the lexeme has two kinds of semantic valence; that of a sequence element and that of a sequence. In the language picture of the world, this lexeme anticipates ideas of a wide range of collocates and syncretism of several types of sequence. Analyses are based on the invariant meaning of the lexeme “the last” (‘such an X that is not followed by any other’) and on corpus data. The data are used in order to determine how types of collocates in the constructions with ‘last’ do reflect modifications of the invariant meaning, how they are being specified referentially, and how they develop semantic and pragmatic inferences, by means of which they facilitate realization of specific semantic occurrences. Since the lexeme has an anthropological basis, it is expected that various portions and efficiency of the subjective factor will be found. The aim of the study is to present the paradigm of the meanings of the lexeme posledný which are both context-bound and characterized by oscillation between description and qualification. Being a part of noun phrases, these meanings reflect linguistics of constructions as well as syntactic and communicative functions of the lexeme. The aim of the study is also either to confirm or disprove the equal position of the lexemes posledný and ostatný.

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Function of vagueness in politically oriented speeches

. Morgan. New York: Academic Press 1975, Vol. 3, s. 41 – 58. GRUBER, Helmut: Political language and textual vagueness. Pragmatics: 3.1, 1993, s. 1 – 8. International pragmatics association. HIRSCHOVÁ, Milada: Netypické případy užití ukazovacích výrazů takový, tak. In: Naše řeč, 1988, roč. 71, č. 2, s. 57 – 61. HIRSCHOVÁ, Milada: Pragmatika v češtině. Univerzita Palackého. Filozofická fakulta: Olomouc 2006, s. 139 – 140. HLADKÁ, Zdeňka: Lexém. In: CzechEncy – Nový encyklopedický slovník češtiny. Eds. P. Karlík – M. Nekula – J. Pleskalová, 2017

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The construction of cooperative and inferential meaning by children with Asperger syndrome

References Ackerman, B.P., 1981. When is a question not answered? The understanding of young children of utterances violating or conforming to the rule of conversational sequencing. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology , vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 487-507. American Psychiatric Association, 2014. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 5th edition. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association. Attardo, S., 1993. Violation of conversational maxims and cooperation: the case of jokes. Journal of Pragmatics , vol. 19, no. 6, pp

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