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“Storyline” or “Associations Pyramid”? A Relationship Between the Difficulty of Educational Methods and Their Effectiveness in Developing Language Creativity Among Pre-School Children

cognitive development? An international review of the effects of early interventions for children from different social backgrounds. Early Childhood Research Quarterly , 25 , 140–165. doi:10.1016/j.ecresq.2009.11.001 Burke, L. A., & Williams, J. M. (2008). Developing Young Thinkers: An intervention aimed to enhance children’s thinking skills. Thinking Skills and Creativity , 3 , 104–124. doi:10.1016/j.tsc.2008.01.001 Camilli, G., Vargas, S., Ryan, S., & Barnett, S. W. (2010). Meta-analysis of the effects of early education interventions on cognitive and

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From Pre-Grammaticality to Proficiency in L1: Acquiring and Developing Infinitival Usage in Hebrew

& Francis. Berman, R. A. & Slobin, D. I. (1994). Relating events in narrative: A crosslinguistic developmental study. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Berman, R. A. & Verhoeven, L. (2002). Developing text production abilities in speech and writing: Aims and methodology. Written Languages and Literacy, 5, 1-44. Blau, J. (1966). Essentials of syntax. Jerusalem: Israel Institute for Writing Education [in Hebrew]. Bloom, L., Tackeff, J., & Lahey, M. (1984). Learning to in complement constructions. Journal of

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Right Cerebral Hemisphere Language and Communication Functions in Females and Males with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Normal Intelligence

Pragmatics Conference, 8-13 September 2013. New Delhi, India. Baron-Cohen, S., Wheelwright, S., Skinner, R., Martin, J., & Clubley, E. (2001). The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ): Evidence from asperger syndrome/ high-functioning autism, malesand females, scientists and mathematicians. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31(1), 5-17. Bartczak, M., & Bokus, B. (2015). Cognitive representations (Metaphorical conceptualizations) of past, future, joy, sadness and happiness in depressive and non

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Does the Frequency of Using Emoticons in Computer-Mediated Communication Signal Creativity?


Nowadays many human interactions take place in the virtual environment. To express emotions and attitudes in computer-mediated communication (CMC) individuals use emoticons - graphic representations of emotions and ideas. Contemporary applications serving computer-mediated communication (CMC) are provided with a broad spectrum of emoticons which may be used in communication. Variety of emoticons gives users of CMC an opportunity to create unique messages and express emotions in a creative manner. This study involved 275 online respondents and aimed to verify whether the frequency of emoticons use may be predicted by the three characteristics of creativity (creative abilities, openness, independence). Bayesian regression analysis showed that creativity does not predict frequency of emoticons use in CMC. No correspondence between creativity and frequency of emoticons use may be explained by pragmatic function of emoticons as they are used to communicate efficiently with an emphasis on the sender-recipient shared understanding of the emoticons meaning. What is more, robust popularity of communication applications leads to widespread employment of emoticons by CMC users. Therefore, with growing number of emoticons users’ creative individuals may seek less common means of expressing own creativity.

Open access