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Sport beyond Moral Good and Evil

Sport beyond Moral Good and Evil

Sport is - and should be - an amoral phenomenon (what should not be confused with an immoral one); that is, a phenomenon which is completely independent from ethics, except of, possibly, deontological ethics which concerns professionals who have professional obligations towards their employers and other persons who are provided with and influenced by their services.

Conduct according to rules of a given sport has no moral character. It has only pragmatic character, similarly as conduct in compliance with principles of the administrative code, the civil code or the penal code. Of course, when you act in accordance with rules of sports rivalry you can additionally realize also other aims - like, for example, aesthetic, spectacular or moral ones. However, in each case rules of the game and legal norms have priority, because they are the most important regulative determinant of conduct in various societies, including variously defined human teams. The above mentioned legal and sports regulations are not moral norms. They can, however, influence moral behaviours if they are in conflict with the law or rules of the game.

From that viewpoint moral norms are exterritorial in their relation to assumptions and rules of a particular sport. Contestants and people responsible for them - like, for example, coaches or sports officials - as well as their employers are neither required to account for their moral beliefs, nor for their moral behaviours, if only they act in compliance with rules of sports rivalry.

Open access
Sport beyond Moral Good and Evil

Abstract

Sport is - and should be - an amoral phenomenon (what should not be confused with an immoral one); that is, a phenomenon which is completely independent from ethics, except of, possibly, deontological ethics which concerns professionals who have professional obligations towards their employers and other persons who are provided with and influenced by their services.

Conduct according to rules of a given sport has no moral character. It has only pragmatic character, similarly as conduct in compliance with principles of the administrative code, the civil code or the penal code. Of course, when you act in accordance with rules of sports rivalry you can additionally realize also other aims - like, for example, aesthetic, spectacular or moral ones. However, in each case rules of the game and legal norms have priority, because they are the most important regulative determinant of conduct in various societies, including variously defined human teams. The abovementioned legal and sports regulations are not moral norms. They can, however, influence moral behaviours if they are in conflict with the law or rules of the game.

From that viewpoint moral norms are exterritorial in their relation to assumptions and rules of a particular sport. Contestants and people responsible for them - like, for example, coaches or sports officials - as well as their employers are neither required to account for their moral beliefs, nor for their moral behaviours, if only they act in compliance with rules of sports rivalry.

Open access
Training Loads, Wellness And Performance Before and During Tapering for a Water-Polo Tournament

Introduction High-level water-polo players participate in a prolonged competitive period including pre-season and in-season training. Especially during the in-season period, high-level players participate in an official match almost every week and train up to nine times per week ( Lupo et al., 2014b ). In most of the European Leagues, the competitive period is organized in two phases. In the first phase, all teams compete against each other twice, aiming at adding victories to classification. In the second phase, only the top classified teams compete in a

Open access
Understanding Trail Runners’ Activity on Online Community Forums: An Inductive Analysis of Discussion Topics

/or misleading is greater ( Malik and Coulson, 2008 ). Interestingly, a study about drug use and pregnancy on online chats showed that the discussion contents (i.e., the information shared by the forum users) could be potentially dangerous for pregnant women because of the unreliability of the information ( Palosse-Cantaloube et al., 2014 ). However, the present study does not intend to assess the quality of the information shared, but instead aims to better understand which topics related to actual trail running can offer directions for further areas of investigation in the

Open access
A New Approach to the Analysis of Pitch-Positions in Professional Soccer

Introduction The essence of soccer match-play comprises multi-directional physical activities integrated with an array of technical skills ( Bradley et al., 2009 ; Wallace and Norton, 2014 ). Complexity is increased further as these activities are highly individualised and also likely to change every 4-6 s ( Krustrup et al., 2005 ). For such reasons, efforts to improve strategy should draw on both detailed, individualised observation, and feedback for players and coaches ( Wright et al., 2013 ). Contemporary notation analysis conducted with this aim in mind

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The Reliability of Technical and Tactical Tagging Analysis Conducted by a Semi-Automatic VTS In Soccer

by a number of professional soccer teams and by the Italian national football federation. Digital.Stadium® is a semi-automatic technology, therefore the evaluation of reliability of such a system is paramount for its utilisation in elite contexts and for future research that will be able to use technical data recorded by this VTS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability (intra-day test-retest) of technical and tactical events that had occurred during an official soccer match (reliability of physical data is not reported in this study). Intra

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Changes of standard physiological-perceptual markers and circulating MicroRNAs in response to tennis match-play: A case report of two elite players

therefore, did not include the changes of miRs during the sportive load. Importantly, all previous studies have also indicated that there exist large between-subject variations in the miR-responses, making it difficult to obtain meaningful main effects ( Hecksteden et al., 2015 ). Consequently, and as a pragmatic alternative, this study aimed to describe the acute changes of both standard physiological-perceptual markers and circulating miRs in response to tennis match-play in a detailed case report. Here, we describe these changes in two elite players grounded on

Open access