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of general rules known as formal law, and excludes legislation either directly aimed at particular people, or at enabling anybody to use the coercive power of the state for such discrimination. It means, not that everything is regulated by law, but, on the contrary, that the coercive power of the state can be used only in cases defined in advance by the law and in such a way that it can be foreseen how it will be used ( Friedrich August Hayek, 2006 ). but in all state actions that have effects on a whole nation. Even though Hayek’s idea on that kind of

decision according to their national rules. We made proposals that are as ambitious as possible, but as pragmatic as needed to achieve gradual improvements already for the 2019 European elections. It is unfortunately true that the connection between national parties and their affiliated European political parties has not been sufficiently presented to the electorate in the past and their visibility remains low. The goal of the current reform proposal is to break the deadlock, by giving European Political Parties a greater appearance in electoral campaigning. This

sustainable common security. Too many of our dominant systems – capitalism, climate, democracy, sovereign states, even the international security system – are stressed, if not dysfunctional. Similarly, decline is apparent in the world order, the neo-liberal order, Pax Americana and the transatlantic post-war alliances. Rather than plan a coherent transformation, officials still prefer pragmatic, incremental reforms to existing arrangements (e.g. the tippy-toe approach). Like it or not, our diverse global systems and challenges tend to be “linked