Businesses are thought and seen at first only through the eyes of the owner-manager. But, inevitably, a company that wants to perform must re-evaluate its business from the customer’s point of view. A „Mysterious Client” study is only one of many pragmatic approaches.
This article aims to present the results of a Mystery Shopping research that was conducted in Iasi - one of the most important cities of Romania. We have observed six different stores using fifteen different persons - mysterious clients - in order to analyse the performance of each store. Te results of this qualitative research can be presented to the managers as the exact opinions of some clients that have really benefited from the services provided and are able to evaluate the quality of these services
The literature on sovereign default is abundant and uniformly admits that since the government cannot be forced to repay its debts, the explanation of why in spite of this it usually honors its obligations, is not straightforward. The literature that aims to explain this phenomenon points to several factors that affect the probability of sovereign default.
A thorough summary of the literature on sovereign default can be found for example in Panizza et al ., (2009); hence, we provide below just a very brief recapitulation of the main arguments, pointing to the
In reaction to the sharp deterioration of fiscal positions and a sovereign debt crisis in the majority of EU member states, EU leaders have been strengthening the EU economic governance framework, in particular for the eurozone member states. This has been reflected mainly through a reinforcement of the Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) within the so-called six-pack and through the recent adoption of the Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union (TSCG).
The objective of this paper is to present the main decisions taken to address intensifying problems in the EU and assess them from the point of view of stability of the eurozone. The paper argues that the recent adoption of the six-pack and of the TSCG has created a legal basis for more effective governance structure that is much stronger than previously, and closer fscal coordination among EU member states in order to ensure public fnance sustainability. The practical results will depend, however, on the political willingness of countries to accept the new rules and rigorous enforcement of those rules.
Most of the new solutions continue the previous approach: stricter preventive and punishing rules, and their more rigorous application. TSCG has adopted a new element: parallel to EU rules, there should be enhanced national rules (possibly in the form of constitutional commitments) and national institutions responsible for fscal discipline. This approach implies that international rules are not strong enough for sovereign countries, which agree to be subject to democratically elected national authorities but do not want to follow decisions by “outside” institutions. In addition, reverse voting in the Council encourages for more pragmatic, economically justifed use of the modifed SGP. In view of a lack of political will to move forward into a political union, this seems the only realistic approach to ensure fscal stabilization and keep the eurozone alive in the short and medium run.
Two main research methods have been applied:
(a)Statistical analysis of data on changes of the public fnances in the EU member states (budgetary defcit and public debt),
(b)comparative analysis of successive EU documents on strengthening economic governance and identifcation of strong and weak aspects of the new documents from the point of view of stability of the eurozone.
The main conclusion is that in a situation of a lack of political will to move forward into a political union, the only realistic approach to ensure fscal stabilization and keep the eurozone alive in the short and medium term seems to be to enforce rigorously the recently adopted new commitments aiming at better fscal control of euro area members.
negotiating the provisions of the Treaty on European Union in its part concerning the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and, as a result, strongly influenced the shape of the existing Eurozone. The main message arising from the Delors Report was the conviction that a common currency is possible without deepened budgetary integration or fiscal federalism. The creators of the current euro area have reached a certain consensus assuming that private financial markets will be able to fill the lack of a common budget and federal institutions. Such a pragmatic approach allowed
article is of the systematic review type, with elements of bibliometric analysis. It is aimed to synthesize the current state of knowledge by presenting a structured analysis and the aggregated findings. For academics, this type of review enables the maintenance of scientific rigor. For employers/managers, the reviewing process facilitates accumulation of credible knowledge from various sources [ Tranfield et al., 2003 ]. In carrying out the review, a comprehensive search strategy with an explicit process of selecting articles is being set out. The process of extracting
The aim of the article is to present cognitive challenges in the area of management. Researchers and reflective managers still work on the identity of management belonging to the social sciences. The paper depicts the connections between cognitive problems (from the epistemological point of view), management methodology and social practice. Management sciences are parts of historical discourse and because of that epistemological and methodological levels have an impact on social practice. The main concern of this paper is the role of the management scientist, consultant and teacher. The analysis suggests that academic teacher and researcher are social roles with a character that can be called universal. Practitioner is associated rather with pragmatic aspect of management science. Practitioners are often regarded as managers, but their roles in the organisation might as well be non-managerial.
Abrahamse, W., Steg, L., Vlek, C., and Rothengatter, T., 2005. A review of intervention studies aimed at household energy conservation. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25(3), 273-291. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2005.08.002
Allcott, H., 2011. Social norms and energy conservation. Journal of Public Economics, 95(9-10), 1082-1095. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2011.03.003
Allcott, H., and Mullainathan, S., 2010. Behavior and Energy Policy. Science, 327(5970), 1204-1220. doi
Articles 31– 33. See Territorial Dispute (Libya/Chad) , Judgment of 3 February 1994, ICJ Reports 1994, pp. 21–22, para. 41. In any case, a different customary international law existed in 1962, when the International Law Commission (ILC) initiated work aimed to codify international rules on treaty interpretation. If claims are made that the rules laid down in Articles 31–33 of the VCLT are identical with customary rules on treaty interpretation, consequently, this cannot explain why Articles 31–33 are always relevant for the interpretation of tax treaties concluded by
to put forward a revised CCCTB proposal in autumn 2016, but it seems to anticipate that an agreement on this proposal cannot be obtained quickly. Accordingly, the Anti-Tax Avoidance Package, including the ATA Directive, should represent a pragmatic approach that sets out initiatives, which can take effect prior to agreement and introduction of the CCCTB.
Having the aim of combating tax avoidance practices that directly affect the functioning of the internal market, the ATA Directive, thus, lays down anti-avoidance rules in the following six specifc fields
Decisions to invest, withdraw, or transfer capital in different foreign markets have become a fixed part of management pragmatics in contemporary companies. The results of the 2017 Global Corporate Divestment Study show that multinational enterprises (MNEs) from particular parts of the world tend to see the main reasons behind their decisions on FDI (foreign direct investment) and FD (foreign direct divestment) in a slightly different manner. Insofar as internationalization processes and FDI have been relatively thoroughly studied and discussed in world and Polish literature, the concept of de-internationalization pursued through the prism of divestment still requires further analysis and consideration. The article aims to present the general framework of the process involving FDI, FD, and the major factors behind it in Poland and Latvia. Theoretical considerations are supplemented with the analysis of statistical data coming from the UNCTAD database as well as the database of Poland’s and Latvia’s central banks, illustrating foreign investment flows. The article uses the method of critical analysis of world and Polish literature, analysis of reports on relevant issues, and desk research analysis.