Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 33 items for :

  • physical tests x
  • Architecture x
Clear All
Open access

Satish Pandey and P.K. Jain


India has world’s second largest road network in terms of length with a total road length of 4.24 million km. Hot mix bituminous pavement contributes around 50% road length to this vast road network. Large scale highway construction in India, emanating from rapid development, has caused massive depletion of scarce natural aggregate. This paper addresses this problem by investigating the influences of the utilization of steel slag as a coarse aggregate on the properties of hot mix bituminous concrete. Physical characteristics of bituminous mix ingredients i.e natural aggregate, steel slag aggregate and bituminous binder were determined to find out their compliance with Ministry of Road Transport and Highway Specification for Road and Bridge Works in India. Mechanical characteristics of bituminous mixes i.e Unmodified (having natural aggregate) and Modified (having steel slag as coarse aggregate) were determined using Marshall Method of mix design.

Unmodified and Modified mixes were subjected to an array of performance tests to check out the suitability of steel slag aggregates for the preparation of high performance bituminous concrete mix. The performance tests includes, retained Marshall Stability, indirect tensile strength, static creep test, wheel-tracking test and resilient modulus test. The laboratory study confirmed the improvement in various mechanical properties of steel slag modified mixes besides reduction in temperature and moisture susceptibility.

Open access

Helena Isabel Lacalle Jiménez and Jessica Tuck


The Defence Infrastructure Organisation requested a pavement evaluation on RAF Waddington and the results indicated that runway rehabilitation and reprofiling was needed in order to meet the physical design requirements set out in the Manual of Aerodrome Design & Safeguarding. The presence of tar in a layer of the old pavement promoted the option of cold recycling this material into the new structure. This paper presents the results from a laboratory investigation into the suitability of cold recycled foamed bitumen asphalt to be used in the structural layers of an airfield pavement.

Laboratory mixture designs with foamed bitumen, incorporating asphalt planings from RAF Waddington runway, were produced in URS Infrastructure and Environment Ltd. laboratory. Specimens were used to assess mix performance and in order to add confidence to the design. The last objective of the research was to demonstrate that asphalt planings from RAF Waddington could be recycled into foamed asphalt for incorporation in the runway rehabilitation works. The optimum binder content was determined from Indirect Tensile Stiffness Modulus tests and Indirect Tensile Strength tests, concluding that the optimum binder content was 3.3% by mass. As a common practice in the UK, up to 1.5% by mass of cement was added to the mixture to improve early life performance. To assess the foamed bitumen samples’ performance with time, specimens were prepared and cured for 28, 180 and 360 days at different temperatures. Post curing, the specimens were tested for a range of performance criteria including fatigue, stiffness and durability.

The study found that asphalt sampled from the runway at RAF Waddington can be recycled into foamed asphalt, meeting the requirements of Defence Infrastructure Organisation Specification 050.

Open access

Manoj Shukla, Devesh Tiwari and K. Sitaramanjaneyulu

for Road and Bridge Works, Fourth Revision, 2001 “Physical Requirements of Aggregate for Asphalt Concrete”, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (2001), Indian Roads Congress, New Delhi, India. Vos, K.B. et al. 2002 “Feed Back Controlled Repeated Uniaxial Loading Strain Test,” Hardware Reference Manual, Universal Testing Machine (UTM-5P), Test No. 20, pp. 1-21, September, 2002.

Open access

Geoffrey M. Rowe

References Anderson, D.A., Christensen, D.W., Bahia, H.U., Dongre, R., Sharma, M.G., Antle, C.E and Button, J., “Binder Characterization and Evaluation, Volume 3: Physical Characterization”, SHRP-A-369, Strategic Highway Research Program, National Research Council, Washington, DC 1994. Baumgaertel, M and Winter, H.H., "Determination of discrete relaxation and retardation time spectra from dynamic mechanical data", Rheol Acta 28:511-519, 1989. Baumgardner, G.L., “Rubber Modified Binders and Mixtures

Open access

Pavel Coufalík, Ondřej Dašek, Jiří Kachtík, Jan Kudrna and Svatopluk Stoklásek

References Bahia, H. U., Anderson, D. A. (1995). “The Pressure Aging Vessel (PAV): a Test to Simulate Rheological Changes Due to Field Aging,” Physical Properties of Asphalt Cement Binders , pp. 67-88. Bahia, H. U., Hislop, W. P., Zhai, H., Rangel, A. (1998). “Classification of Asphalt Binders into Simple and Complex Binders,” Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists , pp. 67. Brown, S.F., Scholz, T.V. (2000). “Development of Laboratory Protocols for the Ageing of Asphalt Mixtures,” 2 nd Eurasphalt & Eurobitume Congress

Open access

Shakir Al-Busaltan

Institution, London, UK. BSI 2008. BS EN 1097-7:2008 Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates - Part 7: Determination of the particle density of filler - Pyknometer method. London, UK. CONCRETE SOCIETY 1991. The use of GGBS and PFA in Concrete. ConcreteSociety report No.40. Slough, UK. DOMONE, P. & ILLSTON, J. 2010. Construction Materials their Nature and Behaviour, Spon Press. ENVIRONMENTAL EGENCY 2008. Pulverised fuel ash and furnace bottom ash, a technical report on the manufacture of

Open access

Amjad H. K. Albayati and Ahmed M. M. Alani

-130. Barksdale, R.,( 1971), “Compressive stress Pulse Times in flexible pavements for use in dynamic Testing”, No.345 , pp 32-44 ,Highway Research Record. Button, J.W., and Epps, J.A. (1983).” Evaluation of methods of mixing lime and asphalt paving mixtures”. Texas Hot Asphalt Pavement Association. European Lime Association / Asphalt Task Force,(2011), “ Hydrated lime a Proven additives for Durable asphalt Pavement. Hicks, R. G. (1991),:” Moisture Damage in Asphalt Concrete”, NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice 175,TRB, National

Open access

Gökçen Firdevs Yücel Caymaz


Bus shelters, which form a part of daily lives of people, generally provide service as small areas of urban space created for short-term periods of waiting. From the perspective of spatial design, it is important that an environment of good quality is provided for users of bus-shelters. This study proposed hypotheses to research how the physical design of bus shelters (location-accessibility, anthropometric characteristics, roofing and walls, lighting, electronic information, seating, etc.) affected general satisfaction of their users. To establish users’ general satisfaction, direct observation was performed and the hypotheses were tested through surveys conducted at bus-shelters selected in two areas of Istanbul (Ataköy-Beşyol) with different economic levels, and an assessment was made of the users’ satisfaction analyses and related problems of bus shelter design. In the conclusion, it was established that there is a significant correlation between general satisfaction and, among other things, the perceived degree of difficulty in getting on and off buses, the harmonization of bus shelter design with the surroundings, the adequacy of a shelter for summer use, the comfort of a shelter, the adequacy of seating, and the extent to which the shelter is maintained.

Open access

Madeleine Wagner and Anna Growe

second perspective is discussed less in geography. This research deals with the interrelation of physical places; for example, office layouts or building design, and the work processes carried out in the respective physical settings. The main question discussed here is that of how physical environments influence and enhance creativity. This perspective is mainly rooted in architecture ( Toker/Gray 2008 ; Martens 2011 ; Lee 2016 ), design ( Thoring/Desmet/Badke-Schaub 2018 ), psychology ( McCoy/Evans 2002 ; Shibata/Suzuki 2004 ; McCoy 2005 ; Toker/Gray 2008

Open access

Daniela Jacob

Tests der eingesetzten Klimamodelle. Diese Modelle sind entwickelt worden, um das Klima der letzten Jahrzehnte möglichst genau simulieren zu können. Nur für diese wenigen Jahrzehnte sind genügend umfangreiche direkte Beobachtungen von Atmosphäre und Ozean verfügbar, die eine genaue Prüfung von Klimamodellen erlauben. Der Rechtfertigung für den Einsatz dieser Modelle in geänderten Klimabedingungen beruht also allein auf dem Erfolg dieser Modelle in der Simulation des Klimas der letzten Jahrzehnte. Die durch geänderte Klimabedingungen, z.B. erhöhtem CO 2 – Gehalt in