Wioleta Hynder, Małgorzata Piskorz-Szymendera, Aleksandra Zielińska, Katarzyna Plagens-Rotman, Agnieszka Dymek-Skoczyńska and Agnieszka Ulatowska
Introduction.Diagnosis of infertility usually begins after a year of waiting for pregnancy without any effect. Although it is usually woman who first reports to the doctor, the diagnostic tests should be conducted simultaneously with a woman and a man.
Aim. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic tests performed in women seeking an offspring.
Material and methods. The survey was conducted from February to April 2014 in the gynaecological wards of the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Clinical Hospital of the Karol Marcinkowski University of Medical Sciences in Poznan. The study included 104 patients during diagnosis and treatment of infertility. The research tool was the author's questionnaire.
Results. The largest group comprised of women aged from 31 to 35 years (44%), the least numerous group – of women under 25 years of age (1%). The most commonly proposed trial was a detailed obstetric interview together with the general one (64%), then gynaecological examination (36%) and transvaginal ultrasound (30%). In 96% of the respondents diagnostic tests included conducted medical history, as well as physical gynaecological and ultrasound examination. Diagnostic methods, like hormonal profile, assessment of ovulation, laboratory tests were performed in 70% of patients. The survey also included questions concerning the diagnostic methods used in the partners of the respondents. In 35% of men one diagnostic test was performed, in 34% two tests and in more than 10% – 4 tests.
Conclusion. Those who decide for the diagnosis of infertility are usually couples aged from 26 to 30 who do not an have offspring. Medical history, physical examination, gynaecological ultrasound and hormonal profile are the most commonly performed diagnostic tests for women applying for posterity.
Aleksandra Karcz, Anna Majda, Aldona Wróbel and Tomasz Karcz
1. Niżankowska-Mogilnicka E, Bochenek G, Gajewski P. Astma. [w:] Szczeklik A, Gajewski P, red. Choroby wewnętrzne. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Medycyna Praktyczna; 2010, s. 358-369.
2. Sveum R, Bergstrom J, Brottman G, et al. Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. ICSI 2012; 10: 1-86.
3. Nathan RA, Sorkness CA, Kosinski M, et al. Development of the asthma control test: A survey for assessing asthma control. J Allergy Clin Immun 2004; 113 (1): 59-65.
4. Kurowska K, Kuźba M. Wsparcie a radzenie
Bojana Filej, Boris Miha Kaučič, Boštjan Žvanut and Mojca Saje
Introduction. Man is a unique, unrepeatable whole in space and time and that is why he requires a holistic treatment, taking into account physical, psychological, social and spiritual factors. The balanced factors can ensure human well-being and his quality of life. Integrated treatment is especially important for patients in palliative care, which was the basic starting point of our research. In our research we wanted to establish whether the patients in palliative care are treated holistically from the perspective of the nurses and where are the specific aspects of palliative care (psychological, physical, social and spiritual) more visible - in the hospitals or in the home environment.
Material and methods. The questionnaire survey was based on the empirical quantitative methodology; a descriptive causal non-experimental method was used. The number of the included sample was 127 nurses (92 hospital nurses, 35 community nurses). To test the differences between the groups (hospital, community nursing), the single factor analysis of variance was used. All the research participants were ensured anonymity and they had the right to withdraw from the study before or during the questionnaire completion.
Results. The physical aspect of the treatment was statistically significantly higher assessed by nurses in a hospital setting (̅χ =3.83; s=1.012; p=0.042). The psychological and spiritual aspects were higher assessed in community nursing setting and social aspect in hospital setting.
Conclusions. Our research has highlighted the shortcomings of the holistic approach in palliative care. Nurses need in-depth knowledge and skills as well as practice within each holistic domain to perform quality treatment of palliative patients.
Paulina Stefaniuk, Agnieszka Szymczyk and Monika Podhorecka
Introduction. Neutropenia, a disorder quite commonly encountered in blood tests, is defined as a decrease in the absolute neutrophil count below 1500/µl. Neutropenia may not be clinically significant, whereas it sometimes indicates serious haematological, infectious or rheumatic diseases. The reduction of the number of neutrocytes below 500/µl is referred to as ’agranulocytosis’. Such decrease in neutrophil count impairs host defense and makes the patient more vulnerable to bacterial and fungal infections, which may lead to life-threatening sepsis.
Aim. This review presents the causes of congenital and acquired neutropenia, with particular attention to drug-induced neutropenia, which may occur due to the intake of the broad spectrum of drugs, including over-the-counter drugs. The article also attempts to answer the question of how the neutropenia and agranulocytosis should be diagnosed and treated.
Methods. The publication is based on the analysis of the literature (PubMed database).
Results. It has to be emphasized that a thorough physical examination and appropriate additional tests make it possible to diagnose a disease that causes neutropenia. This allows for the implementation of appropriate therapeutic procedures, and consequently, leads to avoidance of serious infections.
Anna Majda, Joanna Zalewska-Puchała, Kinga Cholewa, Iwona Bodys-Cupak and Alicja Kamińska
Introduction. Migration of professional nurses is a global phenomenon. Polish nurses usually migrate to the relatively richer countries, especially in Europe, thanks to the opening of the borders of the European Union (2004) and legal regulations in the field of education of nurses (Directive 2005/36/EC). Aim. The analysis of symptoms and determinants of acculturative stress and acculturative strategies among Polish migrant nurses working in the UK. Material and methods. The study used a proprietary questionnaire and standardized tool the East Asian Acculturation Measure - Scale of Acculturative Strategy. The research was carried out through Internet among 62 people. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Dunn test, coefficient Spearman. Results. The main reason for the migration of respondents to the UK was the desire to improve financial situation and professional development. Responders found job as a nurse, including a charge nurse and managers in hospitals and nursing homes. Acculturative stress manifested most often in social functioning, then in the emotional, cognitive and physical aspects. It was characterized by a sense of lack of interest from British people, sadness, feelings of loneliness, lower self-confidence and shyness. It was determined significantly by the age of the respondents, the length of stay in the UK, knowledge of English and maintaining social contacts with the British. The most commonly used acculturation strategy was integration, conditioned by the length of stay in the UK and symptoms of acculturative stress. Conclusions. Working in a foreign country is associated with acculturative stress, implementation of acculturation adaptive and non-adaptive strategies.
Anna Majda, Joanna Zalewska-Puchała, Iwona Bodys-Cupak, Alicja Kamińska and Marcin Suder
, Rolley JX, Rajaratnam R, et. al. Risk factors for Coronary Heart Disease among Asian Indians living in Australia. J Transcult Nurs. 2015; 26(1): 57-63. doi: 10.1177/1043659614523996
27. Anthony D, Baggott R, Tanner J, et. al. Health, lifestyle, belief and knowledge differences between two ethnic groups with specific reference to tobacco, diet and physical activity. J Adv Nurs. 2012; 68(11): 2496-2503, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2012. 05948-x
Ewa Kądalska, Halina Żmuda-Trzebiatowska and Katarzyna Pawłowska
Aim of the Study. To analyse the usefulness of specialization training in the area of long-term care nursing as well as the possibilities to make use of the acquired qualifications – in the opinion of the specialists in this area.
Material and Methodology. The questionnaire survey was conducted among 162 specialists in long-term care nursing.
Results. The majority of respondents considered the specialization training as useful (91.4%) and meeting their expectations (83.9%). As the result of obtained specialization, they perform their work with patients better (67.9%), demonstrate expertise and proficiency as well as high degree of efficiency (67.3%). Some of them exercise their right to independent provision of healthcare services, predominantly the assessment of the patient’s level of consciousness with the use of methods and classifications (75.7%), physical examination (61.2%), oxygen therapy (55.3%), and definitely less often – referral to diagnostic tests (20.4%).
Conclusions. Completion of a specialization training in the area of long-term care nursing brings satisfaction and professional prestige to specialists, results in increased professional independence and improvement in the quality of provided care. However, high qualifications of this professional group are underutilized.
. Chi-square test was used for data analysis.
Table 1 shows that of respondents who experienced ulcers, as many as 44.1% experienced visual impairment. Of all respondents who did not have ulcers, 58.8% had vision problems. The results of statistical tests showed no association between visual impairment and the incidence of ulcers ( P = 0.166).
Relationship between visual impairment and the incidence of diabetic foot ulcers in the general hospital of Dr. Moewardi Surakarta in December 2012.
No foot ulcer
development based on data collected among prenatal care patients. 15 The PPAQ provides a semiquantitative measure of a wide range of physical activity patterns and intensities.
Chasan-Taber, one of the original authors of the PPAQ, granted permission for the development and use of a Chinese version of the PPAQ. For the purpose of this study, the PPAQ was translated into Chinese and tested for the acceptability of the wording. Since parts of the PPAQ were found inappropriate for Chinese pregnant women, for instance, some items are related to playing with pets, or mowing
becoming the main pattern among aging people. 3 Li et al. 4 reported that the number of empty-nest elderly families will reach 90% of the total number of families in China. Many studies exploring empty nesters’ cognitive condition in China have shown that this kind of population is more vulnerable to depression, loneliness, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and other mental syndromes. Some of the studies indicated that the rural area is more vulnerable. Some studies have reported that psychological and physical activity contributes to cognitive fitness and may be