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Blessy Baby Mathew and Nideghatta Beeregowda Kirshnamurthy

Abstract

Groundwater samples were collected from the Peenya Industrial area of Bengaluru, India to test its quality, elemental composition and inherent bacterial population. Further analysis was done using GIS Based Geostatistical techniques to study the level of groundwater and to generate various maps of lineament, digital elevation, geomorphology, soil erosion, salt affected areas and water logging in this region. Physical and chemical parameters such as Total Dissolved Solids, pH, temperature, BOD, COD, metal ions present in the water samples were studied along with predominant microbial constituents. The Total Dissolved Solids and Total Hardness were far beyond the maximum concentration levels. Further analysis of the isolated bacteria was done using staining methods and biochemical tests. The results obtained showed that the area under study had wells ranging from shallow to deep heights of 30 to 80 meters, with a wide variety of 10-400 LPM; whereas the lineament map suggested that the area was bound with parallel ridges and joints. The geographical data represented pediplain complexes, anthropogenic terrains and water bodies. The area was found to go through a seasonal water logging and the soil loss was due to sheet erosion and rill erosion. It was also observed that the groundwater was contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, chromium etc. along with a diversified bacterial population.

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Irene Villafañe, Colin Keogh, Thomas P. Curran and Emmanuel G. Reynaud

Abstract

As the production of single use plastic packaging materials is increasing rapidly, the resultant generation of waste material is quickly becoming one of the world’s major environmental issues. These plastic materials are highly stable, with excellent material properties which can allow them to be used beyond their intended single use. To effectively utilize these recovered plastic materials, an understanding of their mechanical properties is required. The aim of this study was to assess the mechanical properties of recovered plastic bottles to prove the feasibility of utilisation for additional uses in non-shredding based recycling systems with lower energy requirements. This system would conserve the physical integrity of the bottles, using them as a raw material for new direct reuse and repurposing applications. Tensile tests were conducted on samples cut from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles considering different sets of variables: cutting method, orientation of the samples and degradation method. The results clearly demonstrate the superior strength characteristics, and minimal effect of degradation, showing the potential for a whole new field of applications where these recovered materials could be used. However, successful adoption of this new concept relies on structural changes to the operations of recycling and manufacturing companies as well as legislators, regulators and the general public.

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Răzvan Voicu and Lawrence G. Dominguez

). Restoring Stream Habitat Connectivity: A Proposed Method for Prioritizing the Removal of Resident Fish Passage Barriers. J Environ Manage . 2013 Aug 15; 125:19-27 Ovidio, M., Philippart, J., (2002). The impact of small physical obstacles on upstreammovements of six fish species. Hydrobiologia 453, 55–69 Pringle, C.M., (2001). Hydrologic connectivity and the management of biological reserves: a global perspective. Ecol. Appl . 11, 981–998. Reiser, D.W., Huang, C., Beck, S., Gagner, M., Jeanes, E., (2006). Defining flow windows for upstream passage of

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Daniel Kwabena Twerefou, Frank Adusah-Poku and William Bekoe

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Zuzanna Bielec-Bąkowska

References Alexandersson H. 1986. A homogeneity test applied to precipitation data. J. Climatol., 6: 661–675. Bielec Z., Kolendowicz L. 2001. Problems connected with the observation and climatological elaborations of thunderstorms. Ann. UMCS Sect. B , 55/56, 7: 59–65. Bielec-Bąkowska Z. 2002. Zróżnicowanie przestrzenne i zmienność wieloletnia występowania burz w Polsce (1949–1998) . Wyd. Uniw. Śląskiego, Katowice. Bielec-Bąkowska Z. 2013. Burze i grady w Polsce. Pr. Geogr. IGiGP UJ , 132: 99–132. Bielec-Bąkowska Z., Łupikasza E

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Zuzanna Bielec-Bąkowska

. Change , 42: 151-181. IPCC. 2013. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Jones P.D. 1987. The early twentieth century Arctic High – fact or fiction? Clim. Dyn. , 1: 63-75. Kalnay E., Kanamitsu M., Kistler R., Collins W., Deaven D