PV arrays and its quasi-independence of ambient conditions. Proc 14th Europ Photovolt Solar Energy Conf. Barcelona: 1997;1520-1523. http://cordis.europa.eu/publication/rcn/199710913_en.html.  Caamaño-Martín E, Lorenzo E, Lastres C. Crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules: characterization in the field of rural electrification. Prog Photovolt Res Appl. 2002;10:481-493. DOI: 10.1002/pip.436.  IEC 61853-4 ED1. Photovoltaic (PV) module performance testing and energy rating - Part 4: Standard reference climatic profiles. http
Tadeusz Rodziewicz, Małgorzata Rajfur and Maria Wacławek
Monika Janas and Alicja Zawadzka
Industrial waste deposited in landfills poses a threat to the environment and can cause its deterioration. The physical and chemical processes that result in the formation of a number of harmful substances occur in the mass of stored waste. When released to the environment these compounds can be dangerous to all its elements, especially to groundwater. The monitoring of landfill impact plays an important role in assessing the state of the environment. It allows us to follow what changes take place in the waste bed itself, and in particular elements of the environment. On the basis of long-term monitoring studies (conducted in the years 1995-2016), the quality of groundwater around the industrial waste landfill in Zgierz was determined and its impact on the environment was characterized. The quality of conducted monitoring was assessed in relation to the current regulations. Analysis of the results of groundwater quality tests confirms that the industrial landfill in the operational phase due to a number of applied security measures has not contributed to the deterioration of groundwater quality. In the post-operational phase, groundwater contamination is observed, and consequently irreversible changes occur in the environment. The negative impact of the landfill can be due to the disruption of sealing layers and elution of pollutants from the waste by rainwater. The landfill site monitoring plays a key role in assessing causal relationships occurring between the state of the landfill and elements of the environment in its vicinity.
Irene Villafañe, Colin Keogh, Thomas P. Curran and Emmanuel G. Reynaud
As the production of single use plastic packaging materials is increasing rapidly, the resultant generation of waste material is quickly becoming one of the world’s major environmental issues. These plastic materials are highly stable, with excellent material properties which can allow them to be used beyond their intended single use. To effectively utilize these recovered plastic materials, an understanding of their mechanical properties is required. The aim of this study was to assess the mechanical properties of recovered plastic bottles to prove the feasibility of utilisation for additional uses in non-shredding based recycling systems with lower energy requirements. This system would conserve the physical integrity of the bottles, using them as a raw material for new direct reuse and repurposing applications. Tensile tests were conducted on samples cut from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles considering different sets of variables: cutting method, orientation of the samples and degradation method. The results clearly demonstrate the superior strength characteristics, and minimal effect of degradation, showing the potential for a whole new field of applications where these recovered materials could be used. However, successful adoption of this new concept relies on structural changes to the operations of recycling and manufacturing companies as well as legislators, regulators and the general public.
Paweł Kaszycki, Przemysław Petryszak and Paulina Supel
Spent mineral oil-based metalworking fluids are waste products of the machining processes and contribute substantially to the global industrial pollution with petroleum oil products. Wastewaters containing oily emulsions are ecologically hazardous and thus a variety of methods have been implemented to prevent these effluents from affecting the natural environment. Most of these methods rely upon physical-chemical treatment and phase separation; however, none of them proved to be effective enough to meet tightening environmental regulations. Therefore, novel technologies need to be elaborated and there is growing interest in implementing biological treatment methods based on microbial bioremediation. In this study an oil/water emulsion obtained from a waste stream of the metal-processing industry was tested for biodegradability of its organic constituents. This liquid waste was found non-toxic to bacterial consortia and was colonized with indigenous microorganisms (approx. 107 cfu · cm−3). The total load of organic content was determined as a chemical oxygen demand (COD) value of 48 200 mg O2 · dm−3. Emulsion treatment was carried out using a threefold wastewater dilution and employing two variants of biostimulated aerobic bacterial communities: (1) uninoculated emulsion, where bioremediation was carried out by the autochthonous bacteria alone, and (2) wastewater samples inoculated with a ZB-01 microbial consortium which served as a source of specialized bacteria for process bioaugmentation. Biodegradation efficiency achieved in a 14-day test was monitored by measuring both the COD parameter and the concentration of high-boiling organic compounds. Both approaches yielded satisfactory results showing significant reduction of the emulsion organic fraction; however, the resultant decrease of wastewater load tended to be more efficient for the case where the process was bioaugmented with the inoculated consortium. Gas chromatography analyses coupled with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS) confirmed high degradation yields obtained for both cases studied (58 and 71%, respectively) in a 28-day test. It is concluded that oil-based metalworking emulsions can undergo efficient biological treatment under conditions enabling aerobic bacterial proliferation and that xenobiotic biodegradation kinetics can be accelerated by bioaugmenting the process with allochthonous microbial consortia.
Małgorzata Rajfur, Małgorzata Anna Jóźwiak and Andrzej Kłos
Due to their occurrence in very different conditions and high resistance to physical and chemical factors, algae are pioneers colonising new environments and their sorption properties are used in biomonitoring and water remediation. The efficiency of the process of heavy metal sorption in algae used for in situ tests depends on abiotic factors, such as the chemical composition of water. Freshwater algae Spirogyra sp. were used in tests. Algae were exposed in the laboratory in manganese chloride solutions with various contents of other cations, including heavy metals and macronutrients. It has been shown that some heavy metals may desorb manganese bound to the surface of algae as a result of ion exchange in the following sequence: Cd2+ < Mn2+ ≈ Zn2+ < Cu2+. It has been also found that the competitiveness of sorption of cations naturally present in the alga environment versus Mn2+ cations changes in the sequence Na+ < Ca2+ < H+, defined for the concentrations referring to the cation unit charge. The results of tests were compared to the results of dried sea algae Palmaria palmata analyses.
Magdalena Vaverková, Dana Adamcová, Jana Kotovicová and František Toman
References  Kale G, Auras R, Paul Singh S. Degradation of commercial biodegradable packages under real composting and ambient exposure conditions. J Polym Environ. 2006;14(3):317-334.  Kale G, Kijchavengkul T, Auras R, Rubino M, Selke S, Paul Singh S. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: An Overview, Macromolecular Biosci. 2007;7(3):255-277.  Kale G, Auras R, Paul Singha S, Narayanb R. Biodegradability of polylactide bottles in real and simulated composting conditions. Polymer Testing. 2007
Jolanta Joniec, Jadwiga Furczak and Edyta Kwiatkowska
The study was conducted on an experiment established in the area of the former Sulphur Mine “Jeziorko.” The remediation was applied to a soil-less formation with particle size distribution of weakly loamy sand, strongly acidified and with bad sorptive properties (Corg. - 2.0 g kg−1; pHKCl - 4.3; T - 7.0 cmol(+) kg−1). In the particular treatments of the experiment the following were applied to the soil-less formation: flotation lime and NPK; lime and sewage sludge; sewage sludge; mineral wool (5 cm 50 cm−1), lime and NPK; mineral wool (5 cm 50 cm−1), lime and sewage sludge; mineral wool (500 m3 ha−1), lime and NPK; mineral wool (500 m3 ha−1), lime and sewage sludge. Plots prepared in that manner were then sown with a mix of grasses. The control was the soil with no amendments. The analyses of the soil material comprised assays of the numbers of particular groups of bacteria and fungi, and of their biochemical and enzymatic activities. The study revealed that all the wastes applied for the remediation caused an increase in the numbers of the bacterial groups studied (copiotrophic, oligotrophic, cellulolytic, lipolytic), as well as in the respiration activity and rate of mineralisation of cellulose. That effect was the most pronounced in the case of sewage sludge. In treatments in which sewage sludge was applied, an increase was also observed in the numbers of the studied fungi (fungi on Martin medium, cellulolytic fungi, lipolytic fungi) and in lipase activity. Whereas, the application of the remaining wastes resulted in a slight decrease in the numbers of the fungal groups under analysis. Comparing the mean annual values of the analysed biological, physical, chemical and physicochemical properties it was found that the biological properties were as sensitive, and in the case of certain tests (numbers of cellulolytic and lipolytic bacteria, rate of cellulose mineralisation) even more sensitive indicators of positive changes taking place in the remediated soil.
Yan-Ming Wang, Wen-Zheng Wang, Zhen-Lu Shao, De-Ming Wang and Guo-Qing Shi
. Thermal transformation of organic matter in coal waste from Rymer Cones (Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland). Int J Coal Geol. 2010;81(4):343-358. DOI: 10.1016/j.coal.2009.08.009.  Finkelman RB. Potential health impacts of burning coal beds and waste banks. Int J Coal Geol. 2004;51:19-24. DOI: 10.1016/j.coal.2003.11.002.  Simoneit BRD, Bi X, Orors DR, Medeiros PM, Sheng G, Fu J. Phenols and hydroxy-PAHs (arylphenols) as tracer for coal smoke particulate matter: source tests and ambient aerosol assessment. Environ Sci Technol. 2007
Jan Vopravil, Vilém Podrázský, Tomáš Khel, Ondřej Holubík and Stanislav Vacek
References Binkley, D. (1995). The influence of tree species on forest soils: processes and patterns. In D.J. Mead, I.S. Cornforth (Eds.), Proceedings of the trees and soils workshop (pp. 1−33). Agronomy Society of New Zealand Special Publication, 10, Canterbury, NZ. Blake, G.R. & Hartge K.H. (1986). Bulk density. In A. Klute (Ed.), Methods of soil analysis ( pp. 363-375). Part 1. Physical and mineralogical methods. Agronomy Monographs, 9. Madison: ASA -SSA. Blanco-Canqui, H. & Lal R. (2004). Mechanisms of
Aamna Rizvi, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal and Sehrish Khursheed
vitro test to study the effects of surfactants in plant material. Chemosphere, 36(4-5), 715-720. DOI: 10.1016/S0045-6535(97)10113-8. Cserháti, T., Forgács, E. & Oros Gy. (2002). Biological activity and environmental impact anionic surfactants. Environ. Int., 28(5), 337-348. DOI: 10.1016/S0160-4120(02)00032-6. Dale, M.P. & Causton D.R. (1992). The ecophysiology of Veronica chamaedrys, Veronica montana and Veronica officinalis II. The interaction of irradiance and water regime. J. Ecol., 80, 493-504. DOI: 10