The French Consulate in Salonica in the 19th Century
Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Empire, although ephemeral, durably marked the societies and spaces concerned. See other contributions in this volume, especially those by Rüdiger von Krosigk and by Stefan Couperus et al. But this phenomenon could also be found, later in the century, with the new era of colonization. In this modernizing impetus, the consular network occupied a specific place. It tested the ability of France to project and impose its model not just beyond its metropolitan borders, but also outside the spaces it directly controlled. On this subject, see
–87; Sandro Rinauro: »La conoscenza del territorio nazionale«, in: Francesco Cassata / Claudio Pogliano (ed.): Storia ďItalia. Annali, vol. 26: Scienze e cultura delľItalia unita, Torino 2011, p. 497–523.
The other great issue that animated political debate and practice during the Risorgimento, that is, the question of where the capital should be located, was also linked to the physical and political geography of the country. Once again, it was Napoleon who emphasized the problem of identifying the capital of the future united Italy which, although its regions had »much
André Ourednik, Guido Koller, Peter Fleer and Stefan Nellen
average (660 words, black line) lies far beyond the median (380 words, maximum peak of count), due to a few documents exceeding 10 pages (10,000 words).
Figures 2 and 3 show that these reports come from all of world's and Europe's regions, respectively. This is an important precondition for testing our hypothesis according to which differences in sentiments across nations and continents can be identified. Reports from important cities, such as Moscow There was no Swiss envoy in the USSR between 1923 and 1956, see Peter Collmer: »Russie« (27.1. 2016), online at
. Bürokratische Praxis, gesellschaftliche Erwartungen und sozialpolitische Strategien«, in: Jana Osterkamp (ed.), Kooperatives Imperium. Politische Zusammenarbeit in der späten Habsburgermonarchie, Göttingen 2018, p. 23–53, at p. 40–42; Heindl: Josephinische Mandarine, p. 101–105, at p. 113–120. The public did not always display the desired degree of respect towards officials either. The social relation between state officials and citizens was therefore put to the test at many occasions and was emotionally charged in a rather different way than envisioned by the law.
Frits van der Meer, Gerrit Dijkstra and Toon Kerkhoff
more professional civil service led to a bureaucratization and professionalization of personnel management from the 1950s. At the central level of government, structural reform was introduced with the short-lived Central Personnel Bureau, the RPD (psychological tests), the RGD (medical services) and the ROI (central government training institute). These organizations were part of the Home Office. This development was mirrored in the larger municipalities. In essence, recruitment (policies) and human resources management practices in central government remained the