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Miroslawa El Fray, Marta Piątek-Hnat, Judit Puskas and Elizabeth Foreman-Orlowski
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Renke-Gluszko, M. & El Fray, M. (2004
Małgorzata Śliwka, Alicja Uliasz-Bocheńczyk and Małgorzata Pawul
The bottom waste obtained from bio-mass burning shows a huge variability of chemical and physical properties, depending on the kind of bio-mass, the type of a cauldron and burning parameters. The huge variability of the bottom ashes from the incineration plant and co-combustion of bio-mass makes it difficult to find any way to its management. In reality, only the bottom ashes from coal combustion and the small amount from lignite combustion are used, mainly in the building industry and in mining industry. The article presents the initial research, concerning the estimation of the properties of the bottom ashes obtained from bio-mass congestion in the fluidized-bed boiler to use them safely for the environment. To determine the influence of the tested waste on plants, a number of pot experiments have been conducted. The plants which have been used are recommended for phytotoxicity estimation, and are also used for biological reclamation.
Katarzyna Pawluk, Joanna Fronczyk and Kazimierz Garbulewski
In this paper, the ability of nZVI to remove heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) from multicomponent aqueous solutions was investigated through batch experiments. The experimental data were fitted to a second-order kinetic model based on solid capacity. The data for copper and lead fitted well into the second-order kinetic model, thus suggesting that the adsorption had a physical character. The values of the removal ratio and the second-order rate constant indicated that the order of adsorption priority of nZVI was as follows: Pb>Cu>Zn>Cd>Ni. The adsorption isotherm data were described by the most conventional models (Henry, Freundlich, and Langmuir). Equilibrium tests showed that copper and zinc were removed from the solution by adsorption processes, i.e., complexation and competitive adsorption. The test results suggested that the removal processes using nZVI are more kinetic than equilibrium. The study demonstrated that nZVI is favorable reactive material; however, comprehensive investigation should be performed for further in situ applications in PRB technology.
Przemysław Malinowski, Mieczysław Borowik, Wiesław Wantuch, Leszek Urbańczyk, Michał Dawidowicz and Andrzej Biskupski
The results of the study regarding utilization of the waste gypsum formed as a by-product during the production of the magnesium sulphate from dolomite have been presented. The use of this waste have been proposed for the production of granulated multi-component fertilizers containing 25% N; 8% S; 14% CaO and 3.5% MgO. In the process of fertilizer production, the urea which will be bounded with the calcium and magnesium sulphate from the waste in the form of adducts of CaSO4 . 4CO(NH2)2 and MgSO4 . CO(NH2)2 . 3H2O will be the source of nitrogen in the fertilizer. It has been stated on the basis of the laboratory tests that the fertilizer with the assumed composition can be obtained by means of granulation of the raw material pulp, along with the dried and ground product return. The possibility of the production of the fertilizer with good physical properties according to the assumed concept has been confirmed in the pilot scale
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Małgorzata Szymiczek, Maciej Rojek and Gabriel Wróbel
thermography in the assessment of defects of aircraft composites. NDT and E Int. Vol. 36, 433–439. dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0963-8695(03)00052-5.
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