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Chunjuan Luan and Alan L. Porter

.000 0.568 8 Physics_Condensed_Matter 3.000 0.568 9 Chemistry_Physical 2.333 0.442 10 Materials_Science_Characterization_&_Testing 2.000 0.379 11 Biotechnology_&_Applied_Microbiology 1.500 0.284 12 Physics_Fluids_&_Plasmas 1.000 0.189 13 Biochemical_Research_Methods 1.000 0.189 14 Engineering_Manufacturing 0.333 0.063 It is notable that Material Science Multidisciplinary plays a very important role with a much higher nbetweenness value than the other WCs—except for

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Lidan Xia, Shengli Deng and Yirong Liu

health information-seeking intention and testing the hypotheses. Studying these factors can be beneficial not only to health information-seeking behavior research, but also to improving the efficiency and accessibility of health information systems. 2 Literature Review 2.1 Effects of Situation on Information-seeking Behavior As a purposeful activity of attempting to meet information needs, informationseeking behavior has become a hot issue in the field of library and information science (LIS). Belkin (1980) proposed that information needs arise because the

Open access

Raf Guns

case where a network is damaged by randomly deleting links and/or adding random spurious links We only consider the case where a network is damaged by random deletions and/or additions. The task becomes more challenging if the most important links (e.g. those with high edge betweenness centrality) are targeted first. In other words, we want to test the error tolerance rather than the attack tolerance ( Jalili, 2011 ). . The task is to reconstruct the original network based on the damaged network. We will refer to the given network (i.e. the older snapshot or the

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Zhesi Shen, Fuyou Chen, Liying Yang and Jinshan Wu

continuous vector representations for the nodes based on the network structure (Grover & Leskovec, 2016). The core algorithm in node2vec is word2vec ( Mikolov et al., 2013 ). Here we use node2vec to learn 32-dimensional vectors v n for each journal based on the journal citation network. In fact, we also tested 64 and 128-dimensional vector representation and we found similar map of science and similar clusters of journals. Please see the caption of Fig. 2(b) to further details. The underlying mechanism of node2vec is to produce vectors of nodes so that the nodes having

Open access

Dan Wu, Man Zhu and Aihua Ran

mobile search at least once a day. Before the experiment, there were short periods of trial operation to test AWARE’s function and output. System operation, application usage, keyboard input, and location information were recorded in the experiment. Voice input, accounts and passwords, information received, and browsing history were not recorded. Since AWARE only recorded keyboard input, which participants could control, there was no privacy issue. Because we told the participants what kind of data we collected, they were reassured regarding the privacy of their data

Open access

Ying Ding and Kyle Stirling

papers which have received over 4,000 times of citation. She is the Co-Editor of Semantic Web Synthesis by Morgan & Claypool and serves editorial board of several leading international journals. Scientific Discovery Scientific discovery revolves around the process of problem solving. It either uses existing well-established methods to explore a new area or invents new methods to solve existing problems. Either way, it is a journey into unknown terrain. Trial- and-error remains the most common approach to testing new ideas, learning from failures, and

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Jose A. Moral-Munoz, Manuel Arroyo-Morales, Barbara F. Piper, Antonio I. Cuesta-Vargas, Lourdes Díaz-Rodríguez, William C.S. Cho, Enrique Herrera-Viedma and Manuel J. Cobo

period (1980–2013) was divided into two, three, and four subperiods, in order to test and establish the adequate number of periods to analyze. In that way, although it is common to use periods during the same time span, in the first years, there were low numbers of researchers and publications. Finally, a first subperiod of twenty-eight years (1980–2008), and a second subperiod of five years were established (2009–2013), since there was not enough document count to obtain an appropriate analysis. It allows us to have enough keywords to perform the analysis previously

Open access

Daniela Fernandez Espinosa and Lu Xiao

1 Introduction The decision process for a company must be based on the market preferences, and for this reason, many companies consider that the key to success is to know their customers at a personal level (preferences). A recent study, conducted by IBM, indicates that 48% of consumers want personalized promotions through digital shipments, while 44% expect personalized benefits in physical stores ( Gonzalez, 2015 ). One critical strategy to renew and stay in the commercial race in today’s competitive market is to know how the market is evolving

Open access

Jian Du and Yishan Wu

; Redner, 2005 ), mathematics ( van Calster, 2012 ), and medical sciences ( Gorry & Ragouet, 2015 ; Ohba & Nakao, 2012 ); the awakening probability of SBs based on a well-known stochastic model ( Burrell, 2005 ) or the citation distribution within the sleeping period ( Li et al., 2014 ); the citation lifecycle of SBs ( Lachance & Larivière, 2014 ); a new type of SB with a short leap immediately after publication ( Li, 2014 ; Li & Ye, 2012 ); the application-oriented tendency of the SBs in physical and engineering sciences ( van Raan, 2015 ). All the above studies

Open access

Cinzia Daraio

could be developed and tested. According to Gibbons et al. (1994) , knowledge is produced by configuring human capital that is more malleable than physical capital. Indeed human capital can be configured in different ways to generate new forms of specialized knowledge. The new economics of production can be interpreted as a shift from search for economies of scale to economies of scope where the latter arise from the ability to re-configurate human resources and particularly knowledge in new ways ( Gibbons et al., 1994 , p. 63). Traditional and new forms of knowledge