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Afia Asif, Saed Khawaldeh, Muhammad Salman Khan and Ahmet Tekin

microfluidics system for exploiting and obtaining molecular level waves with good spatial and temporal resolution. A great contribution was made by Rustem F. Ismagilov et al . [ 5 ], by presenting the novel idea of SlipChip in 2009. SlipChip is a system allowing to implement multiplexed practical tests and it also guarantees a control over the material available inside, given that it is a device based on the plugging concept. It opened the new avenues of research in microfluidics by initiating the ideas of multiplex solution extractions. Another unique service has been

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Mirele S. Mialich, Bruna R. Silva and Alceu A. Jordao

light clothing and no socks and care was taken to verify that their heels were correctly aligned with the electrodes of the measuring platform. Next, the subjects held retractable levers with electrodes from which electric signals were emitted, traveling through the body. The subjects were instructed to come after a fast of at least 5 hours, to avoid vigorous physical activity during the last 12 hours, to abstain from alcoholic or caffeine-containing beverages 24 hours before the exam, to wear light clothing, and to urinate 30 minutes before the beginning of the

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Dindar S. Bari, Haval Y. Yacoob Aldosky, Christian Tronstad, Håvard Kalvøy and Ørjan G. Martinsen

patient to rate her or his pain from 0 to 10 on a numerical rating scale (NRS) with the understanding that 0 is equal to no pain and 10 is equal to the worst pain imaginable [ 17 ]. Pain is a highly unpleasant physical sensation, which occurs because of the stimulation of pain receptors at the ends of nerves. The stimulation causes sodium to enter the nerve ending, which causes an electrical signal to build up in the nerve. When this electrical signal is large enough, it passes along the nerve to the brain, where the signal is interpreted as pain. Accurate assessment

Open access

Oliver Pabst

, dependent on the sign of the applied voltage (or current) and the corresponding pinched hysteresis loop in the V-I plot is transversal [ 22 ]. The stratum corneum memristor experiences a memductance increase independent of the sign of the applied voltage and its pinched hysteresis loop is tangential [ 22 ]. The functioning of the here implemented memristor bridge depends on the physical conditions of the skin. If the galvanic contact through the sweat ducts is given under both corresponding electrodes (CC1 and CC2, see Fig. 1c) , similar functioning as in [ 15 , 16

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Natália T. Bellafronte, Marina R. Batistuti, Nathália Z. dos Santos, Héric Holland, Elen A. Romão and Paula G. Chiarello

Introduction Overweight and obese individuals have a body composition similar to those with chronic kidney disease (CKD): increased body fat sometimes added to lean mass depletion [ 1 , 2 ]. These conditions have a negative effect on physical capacity and are related to a higher risk of mortality [ 1 , 3 ] and lower life expectancy [ 4 ]. Thus, body composition assessment is important for these subjects. However, presence of edema and excess fat limit the application of classic methodologies, such as anthropometry [ 5 ]. Moreover, reference methods are

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Fred J. Pettersen

defined in section 1 , which is a problem since the engineering definition is what we actually need when evaluating a measurement system. To get around this problem, we use a synonym of the word sensitivity, perceptivity, to which we attach the engineering definition of sensitivity. Described in mathematical terms as (4) Ψ = δ Z δ p $$\mathbf{\Psi }=\frac{\delta \mathbf{Z}}{\delta p}$$ where Ψ is perceptivity, δ Z is change in measured impedance, and δ p is change in the phenomenon we want to test perceptivity against. Since an impedance change is

Open access

Robert F. Melendy

the cell membrane electric field. Computational results for V m and E m will be validated by comparison with standardized values in the literature. IV Materials and Methods A Matlab algorithm was developed to computationally test the modeling suitability of (3d). This required a practical choice of physical membrane parameters [ 14 , 23 , 25 , 35 , 36 ]: Axon thickness (myelinated): Δ r = 2 μm Axon (“cable”) length: 0 ≤ x ≤ 4000 μm Length constant: λ = 1000 μm Resistance (unit area of membrane): R m = 2.56 Ω⋅m 2 Intracellular resistivity

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Jaan Ojarand and Mart Min

Introduction Electrical impedance spectroscopy is a widely used tool for characterization the structure of tissues and cell cultures [ 1 ]. In the cases where the properties of objects are changing in time (e.g., heart muscle) or the objects are moving as cells in a microfluidic channel, the coverage of the frequency range of interest within a short timeframe demands to satisfy the criteria of the linear time-invariant (LTI) system. If the properties of a sample under test (SUT) are changing significantly during a measurement timeframe, the corresponding

Open access

M. Amini, J. Hisdal and H. Kalvøy

impedance which can be detected quickly and inexpensively by impedance electrodes ( 75 ). A fully integrated physical, biochemical and optical sensing platform interfaced with a multi-organ-on-a-chip system was developed by Zhang et al. This system provided automated, and on-line sensing of biophysical and biochemical parameters of a microfluidic environment ( 51 ). Moreover, there are reports of microfluidic devices which provide automated and cost effective cell culture systems by using an array of microchambers inside which cells are cultured and continuous perfusion