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Paweł Ramos, Piotr Pepliński and Barbara Pilawa


Free radicals formed during thermal sterilization of eucerinum anhydricum – the pharmaceutical base were examined by an X-band (9.3 GHz) spectrometer. Eucerinum anhydricum was sterilized at different physical conditions according to the Polish Pharmacopeia norms. The samples were heated at temperatures: 160°C (120 min), 170°C (60 min), and 180°C (30 min). The aim of this study is to compare free radical concentration and effect of microwave power on EPR spectra of eucerinum anhydricum base thermally sterilized at different temperatures and periods of time. The effect of time storage on the free radicals in the heated samples was tested. Free radical concentrations in the sample stored 15 min strongly decreased with the increasing of sterilization temperature, probably as the result of recombination. Storage caused strong decrease of free radical concentrations in the samples, probably as the result of interactions with oxygen. It was observed to be independent of sterilization conditions from 2 days of storage and longer. Because of the lowest free radical concentration, for eucerinum anhydricum thermal sterilization at 180°C for 30 min is recommended. The sterilized samples should be stored at inert atmosphere without oxygen molecules. Fast spin-lattice relaxation processes existed in sterilized eucerinum anhydricum. The character of changes of amplitudes and linewidths of EPR lines with increasing of microwave power was the same for different storage times. The parameters of thermal sterilization and storage time influenced free radical concentration in eucerinum anhydricum, but magnetic spin-lattice interactions were unchanged. The usefulness of EPR spectroscopy in optimization of thermal sterilization process of eucerinum anhydricum was confirmed.

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Ewa Fabiszewska, Iwona Grabska and Katarzyna Pasicz

of software for reading images of the CDMAM test object to assess digital mammography systems. In K. C. Young, A. Alsager, J. M. Oduko, H. Bosmans, B. Verbrugge, T. Geertse, & R. van Engen (Eds.), Medical Imaging 2008: Physics of medical imaging . Proceedings of SPIE (vol. 69131C). DOI: 10.1117/12.770571. 8. Van Metter, R., Heath, M., & Fletcher-Heath, L. (2006). Applying the European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening threshold contrast visibility assessment to digital systems. In M. J. Flynn, & J

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Farahnaz Saadatian-derakhshandeh, Omid Safarzadeh and Amir Saiid Shirani

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Lucyna Samek, Leszek Furman, Tomasz Kawik and Kinga Welnogorska

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Stefania Baccaro and Alessia Cemmi

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Ioan Valentin Moise, Mihaela Ene, Constantin Daniel Negut, Mihalis Cutrubinis and Maria Mihaela Manea

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Sanduni Y. Ratnayake, Anoma K. Ratnayake, Dieter Schild, Edward Maczka, Elzbieta Jartych, Johannes Luetzenkirchen, Marek Kosmulski and Rohan Weerasooriya

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Hyam Nazmy Khalaf, Mostafa Y. A. Mostafa and Michael Zhukovsky

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Neha Gupta Sharma, Michał Silarski, Tomasz Bednarski, Piotr Białas, Eryk Czerwiński, Aleksander Gajos, Marek Gorgol, Bożena Jasińska, Daria Kamińska, Łukasz Kapłon, Grzegorz Korcyl, Paweł Kowalski, Tomasz Kozik, Wojciech Krzemień, Ewelina Kubicz, Szymon Niedźwiecki, Marek Pałka, Lech Raczyński, Zbigniew Rudy, Oleksandr Rundel, Artur Słomski, Adam Strzelecki, Anna Wieczorek, Wojciech Wiślicki, Marcin Zieliński, Bożena Zgardzińska and Paweł Moskal

., Raczyński, L., Rudy, Z., Salabura, P., Słomski, A., Smyrski, J., Strzelecki, A., Wieczorek, A., & Wiślicki, W. (2014). Test of a single module of the J-PET scanner based on plastic scintillators. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A-Accel. Spectrom. Dect. Assoc. Equip. , 764 , 317–321. DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2014.07.052. [arXiv:1407.7395]. 6. Kowalski, P., Moskal, P., Wiślicki, W., Raczyński, L., Bednarski, T., Białas, P., Bułka, J., Czerwiński, E., Gajos, A., Gruntowski, A., Kamińska, D., Kapłon, Ł., Kochanowski, A., Korcyl, G., Kowal, J., Kozik, T., Krzemień

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Berit Väli, Tõnu Laas, Jana Paju, Veroonika Shirokova, Marian Paduch, Vladimir A. Gribkov, Elena V. Demina, Valeri N. Pimenov, Vadym A. Makhlaj and Maksim Antonov

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