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Magdalena Topczewska, Małgorzata Sawicka-Żukowska, Joanna Zapolska, Lucyna Ostrowska and Maryna Krawczuk-Rybak

.07.042 Dietz, W. H. (1998). Health Consequences of Obesity in Youth: Childhood Predictors of Adult Disease. Pediatrics , 101 (Suppl. 2), 518–525. Jetté, M., Sidney, K., & Blümchen, M. (1990). Metabolic Equivalents (METS) in Exercise Testing, Exercise Prescription, and Evaluation of Functional Capacity. Clinical Cardiology , 13 (8), 555–565. doi: 10.1002/clc.4960130809 Lauer, R. M., & Clark, W. R. (1989). Childhood Risk Factors for High Adult Blood Pressure: The Muscatine Study. Pediatrics , 84 (4), 633–641. Leiba, A., Kark, J. D., Afek, A., Levi, Z

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Magdalena Zalewska, Jacek Jamiołkowski, Agnieszka Genowska, Irena Białokoz-Kalinowska, Anna Daszuta-Zalewska and Elżbieta Maciorkowska

Abstract

Nutrition is one of the most important environmental factors affecting the physical development and health of children. Education in this area and the development of proper eating habits are priorities. A prerequisite for the proper nutrition of preschool children is knowledge of proper nutrition of people working there. The aim of this study was an evaluation of the knowledge of kindergarten employees participating in the course “Diet full of life – courses in the field of children’s nutrition”. The study included 90 employees of nurseries and kindergartens, participants of the course in the field of children’s nutrition. The research tool was an original questionnaire. Study I (pre-test) was performed before the beginning of the course, while study II (post-test) was performed after its completion. Generalized Linear Models with a Generalized Estimating Equations extension was used to estimate the impact of the number of covariates on knowledge of course participants, taking into consideration the correlation between before- and after-course results. An increase in the knowledge of the participants of the investigated course on children’s nutritional standards was significant and reached 2.053 points on average. No relationship between age, job position, and knowledge level was determined. In the area of principles of proper nutrition for children, older participants had a lower level of knowledge compared to younger ones, and participants with higher education showed a significantly higher knowledge increase as compared to those with vocational education. A significant knowledge increase in the field of dietary behaviors of children was obtained during the course by all examined women, 1.6 points on average (p < 0.001). Younger participants obtained significantly more knowledge from the course than older ones (p < 0.001). Thus, it can be concluded that realization of the course entitled “Diet full of life” specifically relating to young children’s nutrition affected a significant increase in participant knowledge, particularly among the younger age groups and people with higher education. Kindergarten employees need constant supplemental education in the form of training courses, during which they acquire actual knowledge given in an accessible manner for use in practice. The proper assessment of the supplemental education course presented herein, as well as of the course participants, was performed using General Estimating Equations.

Open access

Maciej Laskowski

REFERENCES Bober, D., Laskowski, M., & Kęsik, J. (2011). Interactive method of detecting color vision disorders in candidates for drivers. Studies & Proceedings of Polish Association for Knowledge Management , 42, 5–15. Campbell, J. L., Spalding, J. A. B., & Mir, F. A. (2004). The description of physical signs of illness in photographs by physicians with abnormal colour vision. Clinical and Experimental Optometry , 87(4–5), 334–338. Colourblindawarenessorg. (2015). 1 in every classroom . Retrieved 1 June, 2015, from http

Open access

Agnieszka Przygoda

Abstract

The notion of language in e-Learning is still not very clear from a technical as well as semantic point of view. In the era of Information Technology, it is more and more important to unify the principles of language used and its semantic meaning to be more simple and precise when taking into consideration online educational courses. During the last years, e-Learning courses have begun to be popular around the world as during an internet era, we tend to find consolidated information sources on internet rather than in traditional courses which require our physical presence. The crucial issue which makes an e- Learning course function is the language used to transmit all the information to the students in a clear and effective manner. For such language to be considered effective, it is necessary to adjust it to the general standards adopted in an international environment. The notion of a language used in e-Learning also faces some problems as it should be so concise as to be accessible for everybody regardless of gender, nationality, and intellectual level. It is hard to standardise its principles, thus over the years many scientists have tried to unify the top requirements a perfect e-Learning course should have. Nowadays, most of the population should stop considering e-Learning as an alternative form of education and focus on developing new models and structures for education and learning that fully exploit the opportunities of today’s digital revolution. With a laptop, a mobile device and Wi-Fi, you can manage your own e-Learning course, and take courses yourself, at any time and place, in any language. A typical model of an e-Learning course is based on guided self-study with a linear progression through modules consisting of recorded lectures, course literature, written assignments and multiple-choice self-tests. Technology has got an even better solution which consists of standardising the learning process and adopting it to a commonly known level of difficulty which might be expected when considering its use by an average person.

Open access

Jolanta G. Zuzda, Robert Latosiewicz and Rui Bras

., Munibuddin, A., Khan, S. T., Choudhari, S. P., & Doiphode, R. (2013). Effect of Traditional Aerobic Exercises Vs Sprint Interval Training on Pulmonary Function Tests In Young Sedentary Males: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Journal of Clinical Diagnostic Research, 7(9), 1890-1893. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2013/5797.3343 Biernat, E., Stupnicki, R., & Gajewski, A. K. (2007). Międzynarodowy kwestionariusz aktywności fizycznej (IPAQ) - wersja polska. [International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) - Polish version]. Wychowanie Fizyczne i Sport, 51(1), 47

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Marta Borowska, Ewelina Brzozowska and Edward Oczeretko

contractions analysis. In G. A. Losa, D. Merlini, T. F. Nonnenmacher, & E. R. Weilbel (Eds.), Fractals in Biology and Medicine (pp. 215–222). Basel, Switzerland: Birkhäuser. Prokhorov, M. D., Ponomarenko, V. I., Gridnev, V. I., Bodrov, M. B., & Bespyatov, A. B. (2003). Synchronization between main rhythmic processes in the human cardiovascular system. Physical Review E , 68(4), 041913. Radhakrishnan, N., Wilson, J. D., Lowery, C., Murphy, P., & Eswaran, H. (2000a). Testing for nonlinearity of the contraction segments in uterine electromyography. International

Open access

Maciej Górkiewicz

Rhetoric. Logical, Statistical and Computer Methods in Medicine, 29(42), 55-73. Retrieved from http://logika.uwb.edu.pl/studies/vol42.html. Chmiel, I., & Gorkiewicz, M. (2014). Measuring physical ability among convalescents on the base of patient-reported quality of life: statistical support for credibility of an individual patient’s report. In L. Bobrowski, U. Mansmann, & C. Enachescu (Eds.). Statistics and Clinical Practice. Lecture Notes of the ICB Seminar., ICB Polish Academy of Sciences, June 2014 (pp. 84). Warsaw, Poland: IBIB PAN

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Maciej Górkiewicz and Izabela Chmiel

–238. Counselling Resource Research Staff. (2012). A Screening Test for Depression . Retrieved from http://counsellingresource.com/lib/quizzes/depression-testing/cesd/ Dijkstra, W. (2002). Transcribing, Coding, and Analysing Verbal Interactions in Survey Interviews. In D. W. Maynard, H. Houtkoop-Steenstra, N. C. Schaefer, & J. Zouven (Eds.), Standardization and Tacit Knowledge: Interaction and Practice in the Survey Interview (pp. 401–425). New York: Wiley. Dojka, E., Górkiewicz, M., & Pająk, A. (2003). Psychometric value of CES-D scale for the assessment of

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Anna Justyna Milewska, Dorota Jankowska, Urszula Cwalina, Dorota Citko, Teresa Więsak, Brian Acacio and Robert Milewski

tree: An application to postpartum depression data. Expert Systems with Applications , 32(4), 987–994. Falconer, J. A., Naughton, B. J., Dunlop, D. D., Roth, E. J., Strasser, D. C., & Sinacore, J. M. (1994). Predicting stroke inpatient rehabilitation outcome using a classification tree approach. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation , 75(6), 619–625. Judmaier, J., Meyersbach, P., Weiss, G., Wachter, H., & Reibnegger, G. (1993). The role of Neopterin in assessing disease activity in Crohn’s disease: Classification and regression trees. The

Open access

Marcin Miłkowski

References Anderson, J. R. (2007). How Can the Mind Occur in the Physical Universe? Oxford: Oxford University Press. Arbib, M. A. (2005). From monkey-like action recognition to human language: An evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28(2), 105-24-67. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X05000038 Arbib, M. A. (2012). How the brain got language: the mirror system hypothesis. New York: Oxford University Press. Baddeley, A. D. (2000). The episodic buffer: A new