.07.042 Dietz, W. H. (1998). Health Consequences of Obesity in Youth: Childhood Predictors of Adult Disease. Pediatrics , 101 (Suppl. 2), 518–525. Jetté, M., Sidney, K., & Blümchen, M. (1990). Metabolic Equivalents (METS) in Exercise Testing, Exercise Prescription, and Evaluation of Functional Capacity. Clinical Cardiology , 13 (8), 555–565. doi: 10.1002/clc.4960130809 Lauer, R. M., & Clark, W. R. (1989). Childhood Risk Factors for High Adult Blood Pressure: The Muscatine Study. Pediatrics , 84 (4), 633–641. Leiba, A., Kark, J. D., Afek, A., Levi, Z
Magdalena Topczewska, Małgorzata Sawicka-Żukowska, Joanna Zapolska, Lucyna Ostrowska and Maryna Krawczuk-Rybak
Magdalena Zalewska, Jacek Jamiołkowski, Agnieszka Genowska, Irena Białokoz-Kalinowska, Anna Daszuta-Zalewska and Elżbieta Maciorkowska
Nutrition is one of the most important environmental factors affecting the physical development and health of children. Education in this area and the development of proper eating habits are priorities. A prerequisite for the proper nutrition of preschool children is knowledge of proper nutrition of people working there. The aim of this study was an evaluation of the knowledge of kindergarten employees participating in the course “Diet full of life – courses in the field of children’s nutrition”. The study included 90 employees of nurseries and kindergartens, participants of the course in the field of children’s nutrition. The research tool was an original questionnaire. Study I (pre-test) was performed before the beginning of the course, while study II (post-test) was performed after its completion. Generalized Linear Models with a Generalized Estimating Equations extension was used to estimate the impact of the number of covariates on knowledge of course participants, taking into consideration the correlation between before- and after-course results. An increase in the knowledge of the participants of the investigated course on children’s nutritional standards was significant and reached 2.053 points on average. No relationship between age, job position, and knowledge level was determined. In the area of principles of proper nutrition for children, older participants had a lower level of knowledge compared to younger ones, and participants with higher education showed a significantly higher knowledge increase as compared to those with vocational education. A significant knowledge increase in the field of dietary behaviors of children was obtained during the course by all examined women, 1.6 points on average (p < 0.001). Younger participants obtained significantly more knowledge from the course than older ones (p < 0.001). Thus, it can be concluded that realization of the course entitled “Diet full of life” specifically relating to young children’s nutrition affected a significant increase in participant knowledge, particularly among the younger age groups and people with higher education. Kindergarten employees need constant supplemental education in the form of training courses, during which they acquire actual knowledge given in an accessible manner for use in practice. The proper assessment of the supplemental education course presented herein, as well as of the course participants, was performed using General Estimating Equations.
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The notion of language in e-Learning is still not very clear from a technical as well as semantic point of view. In the era of Information Technology, it is more and more important to unify the principles of language used and its semantic meaning to be more simple and precise when taking into consideration online educational courses. During the last years, e-Learning courses have begun to be popular around the world as during an internet era, we tend to find consolidated information sources on internet rather than in traditional courses which require our physical presence. The crucial issue which makes an e- Learning course function is the language used to transmit all the information to the students in a clear and effective manner. For such language to be considered effective, it is necessary to adjust it to the general standards adopted in an international environment. The notion of a language used in e-Learning also faces some problems as it should be so concise as to be accessible for everybody regardless of gender, nationality, and intellectual level. It is hard to standardise its principles, thus over the years many scientists have tried to unify the top requirements a perfect e-Learning course should have. Nowadays, most of the population should stop considering e-Learning as an alternative form of education and focus on developing new models and structures for education and learning that fully exploit the opportunities of today’s digital revolution. With a laptop, a mobile device and Wi-Fi, you can manage your own e-Learning course, and take courses yourself, at any time and place, in any language. A typical model of an e-Learning course is based on guided self-study with a linear progression through modules consisting of recorded lectures, course literature, written assignments and multiple-choice self-tests. Technology has got an even better solution which consists of standardising the learning process and adopting it to a commonly known level of difficulty which might be expected when considering its use by an average person.
Jolanta G. Zuzda, Robert Latosiewicz and Rui Bras
., Munibuddin, A., Khan, S. T., Choudhari, S. P., & Doiphode, R. (2013). Effect of Traditional Aerobic Exercises Vs Sprint Interval Training on Pulmonary Function Tests In Young Sedentary Males: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Journal of Clinical Diagnostic Research, 7(9), 1890-1893. doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2013/5797.3343 Biernat, E., Stupnicki, R., & Gajewski, A. K. (2007). Międzynarodowy kwestionariusz aktywności fizycznej (IPAQ) - wersja polska. [International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) - Polish version]. Wychowanie Fizyczne i Sport, 51(1), 47
Marta Borowska, Ewelina Brzozowska and Edward Oczeretko
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Maciej Górkiewicz and Izabela Chmiel
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Anna Justyna Milewska, Dorota Jankowska, Urszula Cwalina, Dorota Citko, Teresa Więsak, Brian Acacio and Robert Milewski
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