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Lara N. Schulze, Sandra Van der Auwera, Deborah Janowitz, Johannes Hertel, Katharina Wittfeld, René Walk, Nele Friedrich, Henry Völzke and Hans J. Grabe

Childhood trauma can be classified in different categories: Emotional abuse refers to verbal aggression, humiliation or degradation by an adult person. Physical aggression or violation stands for physical abuse. Sexual abuse is defined as sexual contact between the child and an older person. Besides these three categories of abuse, two further categories of childhood neglect exist: ‘ Emotional neglect refers to the failure of caretakers to provide a child’s basic psychological and emotional needs […]’ ( Bernstein and Fink 1998 ). The failure of caregivers to provide

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Reinhard Heun

, quality and outcome, as this would reduce the number of papers considerably and would, therefore, have restricted the current already limited overview on the effects of Ramadan on mental health. Results Table 1 gives the results of paper selection and data extraction. The literature in relation to the effects of Ramadan on mental health is limited to a few areas: that is, effects in the general population and healthy volunteers (7 papers), in sports (3 papers), on eating and eating disorders (3 papers), on severe physical disorders (3 papers) and on mental

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Illaria Tercelli and Nuno Ferreira

; Shecter, 2013 ; Singh, et al., 2010). Five studies used a quasi-experimental design, and pre- and post-test (Haydicky, et al., 2013; Haydicky, 2014 ; van de Weijer-Bergsma, et al., 2012; van der Oord, et al., 2012; Worth, 2013 ). Only one study ( Sidhu, 2013 ) employed a randomized pre-test and post-test with control group design. Table 1 Summary overview of included papers Study / Research Design Sample Characteristics Treatment, duration and therapist characteristics Informant Measures Treatment key findings Carboni (2012) Children:4 males

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Giuseppe Carrà, Giulia Brambilla, Manuela Caslini, Francesca Parma, Alessandro Chinello, Francesco Bartoli, Cristina Crocamo, Luigi Zappa and Costanza Papagno

( Vuilleumier & Pourtois, 2007 ). Deficits in FER and executive control could thus be associated also in EDs. Consistently, determining whether the impairment in EDs is cognitive-affective may have key therapeutic implications, as these require different intervention strategies ( Legenbauer, Vocks, & Rüddel, 2008 ). It might well be that, also in people with EDs, set-shifting and FER are jointly compromised, at least as regards the impairment of certain emotions. Nonetheless, to our knowledge, no empirical research exists, explicitly addressing this issue. We thus tested the

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S M Yasir Arafat, Konstantinos Papadopoulos, Mohammad S I Mullick and Md. Saleh Uddin

chronic (Miller & Smith 1993). Acute and episodic acute stress can be eustress in small doses and are the most common forms of stress ( Hammen et al., 2009 ). Unlike the first two categories, chronic stress is not exciting but can destroy bodies, minds and lives; can affect people of all ages and genders and can lead not only to physical but also to psychological health problems ( Anderson, 1998 ). Chronic stress can be defined as the response to emotional pressure experienced for a prolonged period of time, when the individuals have the feeling of having little or no

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S.M. Yasir Arafat, M A Al Mamun and Md. Saleh Uddin

Analysis: After collection, the data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science version 16 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) along with Microsoft Excel version 2010. Data were analysed on the basis of the objective of the study focusing the level of D-Lit and descriptive analysis was done. The literacy status was assessed in terms of the mean and standard deviation of the items as well as total scale. Cross tabulation was performed to assess the relationship of D-Lit in respect of gender by Chi-square test, where the level of significance was set at

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S. M. Yasir Arafat

]our child’s misbehavior 37.[He uses][I use]physical punishment as a way of disciplining our child 38.[He carries][I carry]out discipline after our child misbehaves 39.[He apologizes][I apologize] to our child when making a mistake in parenting 40.[He tells][I tell]our child what to do 41.[He gives] [I give] into our child when the child causes a commotion about something 42.[He talks it over and reasons][I talk it over and reason]with our child when the child misbehaves 43.[He slaps][I slap]our child when the child misbehaves 44.[He

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Dinesh Bhugra

reserved for women), there were more than 10,000 applicants, of whom only about 300 were interviewed after an initial screening test followed by an aptitude test. Joining Medical College where Armed Forces discipline prevailed with uniforms, parades, and training in rifle shooting was an interesting experience as was the language. English was the medium of instruction, and I had to polish my language. Another factor was the use of Marathi, which was the local language, so learning Marathi to communicate with patients was important. There were 3 parts of MBBS each with 3

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Danny Vumbi Likashi, Ravi Paul and Luty Jason

readers differentiate the terms as they apply in alcohol studies. Firstly, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020 define moderate alcohol consumption as a form of drinking that is up to one or less drinks per day for women and up to two or less drinks per day for men. Secondly, low-risk drinking involves drinking of alcohol not more than 3 drinks on any single day and no more than 7 drinks per week ( NIAAA 2004 ). Harmful alcohol use, on the other hand, is alcohol consumption that results in consequences to physical and mental health, and is characterised by

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Fatima Hossain and Nuno Ferreira

, homophobia, and generally overt gender rules, divergence from which is judged and frowned upon ( Elia, 1994 ; O’Conor, 1994 ). School environments are expected to be safe, positive, and nurturing, supporting the growth and development of all youth. Despite this common expectation, sexual minority youth may frequently experience stigmatization and victimization. This may include a substantial number of stressors, such as physical or verbal homophobic bullying and rejection by both teachers and peers, as well as cyberbullying and discrimination ( Jordan et al., 1997 ). A