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Elżbieta Cieśla

- ish Youth. Warsaw: Studia i Monografie AWF Warszawa 98, 67-83. [in Polish] 23. Momola I. (2005). Levels of motor skills mong preschool- aged children. Antropomotoryka 31(15), 47-54. [in Polish] 24. Wilczewski A., Krawczyk B., Skład M., Saczuk J., Majle B. (1996). Physical development and fitness of children from urban and rural as determined by Eurofit test Battery. Biol­ogy of Sport 13(2), 113-126. 25. Mehtap Ozdirenę M., Ozcan A., Akin F., Gelecek N. (2005). Physical fitness in rural children compared with urban

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Janusz Jaworski and Eligiusz Madejski

References Raczek, J., Mynarski W. & Ljach W. (2003). Shaping and diagnosis of coordination motor abilities. Handbook for teachers, trainers and students. Katowice: AWF Katowice. [in Polish] Starosta, W. (2003). Motor Coordination Abilities. Warszawa: Instytut Sporu. [in Polish] Starosta, W. (2006). Global and Local Motor Coordination in Physical Education and Sport. Gorzów Wielkopolski: Zamiejscowy Wydział Kultury Fizycznej poznańskiej AWF w Gorzowi Wielkopolskim. [in Polish

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Agnieszka Szpala, Alicja Rutkowska-Kucharska and Paweł Syrewicz

. Vereijken (2011) Measuring physical fitness in children who are 5 to 12 years old with a test battery that is functional and easy to administer. Phys. Ther., 91: 1087-1095. DOI: 10.2522/ptj.20090350 7. Gomes R.V., A. Moreira, L. Lodo, K. Nosaka, A.J. Coutts, M.S. Aoki (2013) Monitoring training loads, stress, immune-endocrine responses and performance in tennis players. Biol. Sport., 30: 173-180. DOI: 10.5604/20831862.1059169 8. Gomes R.V., R.C.O. Santos, K. Nosaka, A. Moreira, E.H. Miyabara, M.S. Aoki (2014) Muscle damage after a tennis

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Maciej Składanowski, Paweł Jarosz and Barbara Mackiewicz

REFERENCES 1. American Thoracic Society. Standarization of spirometry. Update. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;152:1107-36. 2. Quanjer PH, Lebowiz MD, Gregg I, et al. Peak expiratory flow. Conclusion and recommendations of a working party of the European Respiratory Society. Eur Respir J. 1997;10(Suppl.24):2S-8S. 3. Cook NR, Albert MS, Berkman LF, et al. Interrelationships of peak expiratory flow rate with physical and cognitive function in the elderly: MacArthur Foundation studies of aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci.1995;50(6):M317-M323

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Katarzyna Wójtowicz-Chomicz, Anna Czeczuk, Elżbieta Huk-Wieliczuk and Andrzej Borzęcki


Introduction. Poland is among the top ten countries of the European Union displaying the highest intensity of smoking.

Aim. To evaluate the frequency and intensity of smoking, the strength of nicotine addiction and the motivation to discontinue smoking, among students of the Academy of Physical Education.

Material and methods. First, a survey involving an anonymous questionnaire (which included both the Fageström and Schneider tests), was conducted within a population of 276 students. Next, this was analyzed statistically using the Statystica 7.1 program.

Results. The initial results of this research showed that 29, 71% of all respondents smoke cigarettes. Moreover, the applied Fageström test revealed that the test population was either: slightly addicted (44, 72% of all respondents), moderately addicted (34, 84% of all respondents), or heavily addicted (17.44%).

Conclusions. The prevalence of smoking among students of the Academy of Physical Education remains alarming. Furthermore, the negative health behaviors contribute to an adverse overview of the health of the questioned students.

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Magdalena Czarkowska, Tomasz Saran, Anna Mazur, Andrzej Horoch and Lech Panasiuk

. Z Gerontol Geriatr. 2014;47(5):389-96. 4. Instytut Medycyny Wsi. Dzienny Dom Opieki Medycznej w Lublinie. . (access: 2018.08.14.). 5. WHO. . (access: 2018.08.14.). 6. Yang J-E, Lee T-Y, Kim J-K. The effect of a VR exercise program on falls and depression in the elderly with mild depression in the local community. J Phys Ther Sci. 2017;29(12):2157-9. 7. Neviani F, Belvederi Murri M, et al. Physical exercise for late life depression

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Magdalena Czarkowska, Tomasz Saran, Anna Mazur and Lech Panasiuk

REFERENCES 1. Główny Urząd Statystyczny. Available from: (access: 2018.07.15.). 2. Prusinowska A, Komorowski A, Przepióra W, Księżopolska-Orłowska K. Physical activity in the elderly who underwent joint replacement surgery in the course of rheumatic diseases. Reumatologia. 2016;54(3):117-21. 3. Instytut Medycyny Wsi. Dzienny Dom Opieki Medycznej w Lublinie. Available from: (access: 2018.07.15.). 4. Hagovská M, Olekszyová Z. Impact of the combination of cognitive

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Dariusz Boguszewski, Jakub Grzegorz Adamczyk, Sylwia Kowalska, Judyta Sado-Drapała, Monika Lewandowska and Dariusz Białoszewski

References 1. Anokye NK, Trueman P, Green C, et al. Physical activity and health related quality of life. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:624. 2. Dey M, Gmel G, Mohler-Kuo M. Body mass index and healthrelated quality of life among young Swiss men. BMC Public Health. 2013;13(1):1028. [Epub ahead of print] 3. Ekblom-Bak E, Ekblom B, Vikström M, et al. The importance of nonexercise physical activity for cardiovascular health and longevity. Br J Sports Med. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2012-092038. [Epub ahead of print

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Katarzyna Wójtowicz-Chomicz, Anna Czeczuk, Elżbieta Huk-Wieliczuk and Andrzej Borzęcki


Introduction. Alcohol is found to contribute to everyday life of young people. Frequent heavy drinking, violent behavior under influence of alcohol are typical for youths. Unreasonable over-consumption of alcohol might have direct impact on their health in adulthood, as initially controlled amount of alcohol drinking can gradually lead to abuse and further, to alcohol addiction.

Aim. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of alcohol consumption and to notify knowledge of the harmful effects of alcohol on human body.

Material and methods. The study was conducted among 276 fifth-year students (including 206 men and 70 women). Students filled out an anonymous questionnaire containing AUDIT test.

Results. Risky model of alcohol consumption was observed among 75.72% of students whereas alcohol-addicted group accounted for 1.81%. The remaining group of students (22.47%) was reported as harmful alcohol consumption model. Beer was the most often consumed alcohol.

Conclusions. Abstinence from drinking alcohol is a rarely observed phenomenon among students of the Academy of Physical Education. Future PE teachers should be urgently motivated to educate and to encourage youths about healthy life style.

Open access

Agnieszka Wańkowicz, Paweł Golubka, Dominik Dłuski, Wiktoria Golubka, Radzisław Mierzyński, Piotr Wańkowicz, Kristiana Golubka, Ivan Golubka, Anna Bednarek and Dorota Darmochwał-Kolarz


Introduction. The professional image of a nurse which is influenced by a whole variety of factors is the main subject of this work. The social attitudes toward nurses are related to people’s own beliefs, opinions, stereotypes, as well as the nurses’ professional, personal and interpersonal skills. The proper image of a nurse is very important. Patients are becoming increasingly demanding toward nurses which poses new challenges for nurses attempting at creating a positive image of this profession.

Aim. The aim of this work was to elicit the opinions about nurses’ work from parents of children hospitalized on the oncologic ward.

Material and methods. The authors used a questionnaire of their own making and conducted a literature analysis. The literature review was made using the data taken from Main Medical Library. The research group consisted of 50 parents of children hospitalized in Oncology, Hematology and Child Transplantology Department in Lublin. All the parents were advised about the aim of the study and informed that the questionnaire is anonymous and voluntary. The obtained results have then undergone a statistical analysis, using a Chi2 test. Statistical significance was reached at the level of p<0.05.

Results. The most important factors affecting the professional image of a nurse are as follows: the parent’s sex, their place of residence, nurse’s appearance, as well as the following traits: being nice, protective and friendly.

Discussion. The image of a nurse as someone who is smiling, friendly and calm appears to be the closest to an ideal picture of such a professional. This pertains not only to parents but to the society as a whole. The nurse should pay attention to patients’ physical needs and expectations, as well as their spiritual side.

Conclusions. The researched group provided a positive opinion about the work of nurses at the Department. They paid special attention to their being nice, protective and friendly. It is the nurses’ physical appearance that sheds a positive light on them, as competent and friendly professionals. Even though most people perceive nursing as a rather unattractive profession, there is a huge deal of respect for nurses.