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Tuvya T. Amsel

Abstract

The polygraph is an instrument that detects, monitors, and records physiological responses that are allegedly of psychological origin and attributed to deception. Hence the human mind and its complex psychology are the core of the detected physical responses. However, the polygraph industry has almost entirely overlooked psychological issues in its training and publishing. The industry focuses its attention and interest on various technical aspects of the test such as e.g. scoring, rather than concentrating on what is most important, i.e. the examinee’s psychology, as it is responsible for almost the entire test result. The paper extensively explains the importance of examinee psychology and its influence on test outcome, points to the shortfalls in training and publication activity of the industry, and discusses the result and impact of the industry’s approach.

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Lara N. Schulze, Sandra Van der Auwera, Deborah Janowitz, Johannes Hertel, Katharina Wittfeld, René Walk, Nele Friedrich, Henry Völzke and Hans J. Grabe

Childhood trauma can be classified in different categories: Emotional abuse refers to verbal aggression, humiliation or degradation by an adult person. Physical aggression or violation stands for physical abuse. Sexual abuse is defined as sexual contact between the child and an older person. Besides these three categories of abuse, two further categories of childhood neglect exist: ‘ Emotional neglect refers to the failure of caretakers to provide a child’s basic psychological and emotional needs […]’ ( Bernstein and Fink 1998 ). The failure of caregivers to provide

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Beata Pawłowska, Zofia Zaręba and Emilia Potembska

, Ghassabian A, Ahmadi G, Assari S. Amphetamine use and its associated factors in body builders: a study from Tehran, Iran. Arch Med Sci. 2012; 8(2):362-7. 9. Ricciardelli LA, McCabe MP. Self-esteem and negative affect as moderators of sociocultural influences on body dissatisfaction, strategies to decrease weight, and strategies to increase muscles among adolescent boys and girls. Sex Roles. 2001;44(3-4):189-207. 10. Smolak L, Stein JA. The relationship of drive for muscularity to sociocultural factors, self-esteem, physical attributes gender role, and social

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Reinhard Heun

, quality and outcome, as this would reduce the number of papers considerably and would, therefore, have restricted the current already limited overview on the effects of Ramadan on mental health. Results Table 1 gives the results of paper selection and data extraction. The literature in relation to the effects of Ramadan on mental health is limited to a few areas: that is, effects in the general population and healthy volunteers (7 papers), in sports (3 papers), on eating and eating disorders (3 papers), on severe physical disorders (3 papers) and on mental

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Illaria Tercelli and Nuno Ferreira

; Shecter, 2013 ; Singh, et al., 2010). Five studies used a quasi-experimental design, and pre- and post-test (Haydicky, et al., 2013; Haydicky, 2014 ; van de Weijer-Bergsma, et al., 2012; van der Oord, et al., 2012; Worth, 2013 ). Only one study ( Sidhu, 2013 ) employed a randomized pre-test and post-test with control group design. Table 1 Summary overview of included papers Study / Research Design Sample Characteristics Treatment, duration and therapist characteristics Informant Measures Treatment key findings Carboni (2012) Children:4 males

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Giuseppe Carrà, Giulia Brambilla, Manuela Caslini, Francesca Parma, Alessandro Chinello, Francesco Bartoli, Cristina Crocamo, Luigi Zappa and Costanza Papagno

( Vuilleumier & Pourtois, 2007 ). Deficits in FER and executive control could thus be associated also in EDs. Consistently, determining whether the impairment in EDs is cognitive-affective may have key therapeutic implications, as these require different intervention strategies ( Legenbauer, Vocks, & Rüddel, 2008 ). It might well be that, also in people with EDs, set-shifting and FER are jointly compromised, at least as regards the impairment of certain emotions. Nonetheless, to our knowledge, no empirical research exists, explicitly addressing this issue. We thus tested the

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S M Yasir Arafat, Konstantinos Papadopoulos, Mohammad S I Mullick and Md. Saleh Uddin

chronic (Miller & Smith 1993). Acute and episodic acute stress can be eustress in small doses and are the most common forms of stress ( Hammen et al., 2009 ). Unlike the first two categories, chronic stress is not exciting but can destroy bodies, minds and lives; can affect people of all ages and genders and can lead not only to physical but also to psychological health problems ( Anderson, 1998 ). Chronic stress can be defined as the response to emotional pressure experienced for a prolonged period of time, when the individuals have the feeling of having little or no

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S.M. Yasir Arafat, M A Al Mamun and Md. Saleh Uddin

Analysis: After collection, the data were analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science version 16 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) along with Microsoft Excel version 2010. Data were analysed on the basis of the objective of the study focusing the level of D-Lit and descriptive analysis was done. The literacy status was assessed in terms of the mean and standard deviation of the items as well as total scale. Cross tabulation was performed to assess the relationship of D-Lit in respect of gender by Chi-square test, where the level of significance was set at

Open access

S. M. Yasir Arafat

]our child’s misbehavior 37.[He uses][I use]physical punishment as a way of disciplining our child 38.[He carries][I carry]out discipline after our child misbehaves 39.[He apologizes][I apologize] to our child when making a mistake in parenting 40.[He tells][I tell]our child what to do 41.[He gives] [I give] into our child when the child causes a commotion about something 42.[He talks it over and reasons][I talk it over and reason]with our child when the child misbehaves 43.[He slaps][I slap]our child when the child misbehaves 44.[He

Open access

Joanna Róg and Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz

., Ibarra Jato M., Barroso García A., González Tejón S., Tajada Vitales C., Díaz Mújica B., Viñas Cabrera L., Sanchís Catalán R., Salvador Barbarroja T. The effectiveness of a program of physical activity and diet to modify cardiovascular risk factors in patients with severe mental illness after 3-month follow-up: CAPiCOR randomized clinical trial. Eur Psychiatry. 2015; 30(8): 1028-36. 7. Kraeuter A.K., Loxton H., Lima B.C., Rudd D., Sarnyai Z. Ketogenic diet reverses behavioral abnormalities in an acute NMDA receptor hypofunction model of schizophrenia. Schizophr