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Şapcaliu Agripina, Vasilică Savu, Ion Radoi, Dana Tapaloagă, Petruţ Tanase and Victor Calin

References 1. Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals (mammals, birds and bees), Sixth Edition, OIE, 2008 2. Bailey L, Ball B.V. Honey bee pathology, Academic Press, London, 1991 3. Higes M, Martin R, Meana A. Nosema ceranae, a new microsporidian parasite in honey bees in Europe, J. Invertebr. Pathol. 2006, 92: 93-95. 4. Huang WF, Jiang JH, Chen YW, Wang CH. A Nosema ceranae isolate from the honeybee Apis mellifera, Apidologie 2007, 38: 1-8. 5. Jay SC. A

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Sathiyan Saminathan, Ravikumar Manickam, Varatharaj Chandraraj, Sanjay Supe and Subbarao Keshava

References Bayouth JE, Wendt D, Morrill SM. MLC quality assurance technique for IMRT applications. Med Phys. 2003; 30(5): 743-750. Bohsung J, Groll J, Moys A, Bohmer D, Marnitz S, Budach V. One year of clinical IMRT with dynamic MLC - the Charite experience from a physicist point of view. Proceedings of the 9th Varian European Users Meeting; 2001: 39-45. Chui C-S, Spirou S, LoSasso T. Testing of dynamic multileaf collimation. Med Phys. 1996; 23(5): 635

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Simona Avramova-Cholakova and Jenia Vassileva

. 4th ed. Luxemburg; European Communities; 2006. Chapter 2, European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening; p. 57-104. Faulkner K, Cranley K. An investigation into variations in the estimation of mean glandular dose in mammography. Rad Prot Dosim. 1995; 57(1-4): 405-407. Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine. The commissioning and routine testing of mammographic X-ray systems. York: IPEM; 2005. 156 p. IPEM Report 89. ISBN: 1903613213

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Niyazi Acer, Nazan Dolu, Gokmen Zararsiz, Mehmet Sait Dogan, Kazim Gumus, Sevgi Ozmen, Ali Yucel Kara, Handan Soysal, Huseyin Per and Mehmet Bilgen

:15. 25. Bilgen M, Narayana PA. Mohr diagram interpretation of anisotropic diffusion indices in MRI. Magn Reson Imaging 2003; 21(5): 567-72. 26. Pierpaoli C, Basser PJ. Toward a quantitative assessment of diffusion anisotropy. Magn Reson Med 1996; 36(6): 893-906. 27. Winston GP. The physical and biological basis of quantitative parameters derived from diffusion MRI. Quant Imaging Med Surg 2012; 2(4): 254-65. 28. Bilgen M, Elshafiey I, Narayana PA. Mohr diagram representation of anisotropic diffusion tensor in MRI. Magn

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Afia Asif, Saed Khawaldeh, Muhammad Salman Khan and Ahmet Tekin

microfluidics system for exploiting and obtaining molecular level waves with good spatial and temporal resolution. A great contribution was made by Rustem F. Ismagilov et al . [ 5 ], by presenting the novel idea of SlipChip in 2009. SlipChip is a system allowing to implement multiplexed practical tests and it also guarantees a control over the material available inside, given that it is a device based on the plugging concept. It opened the new avenues of research in microfluidics by initiating the ideas of multiplex solution extractions. Another unique service has been

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Mirele S. Mialich, Bruna R. Silva and Alceu A. Jordao

light clothing and no socks and care was taken to verify that their heels were correctly aligned with the electrodes of the measuring platform. Next, the subjects held retractable levers with electrodes from which electric signals were emitted, traveling through the body. The subjects were instructed to come after a fast of at least 5 hours, to avoid vigorous physical activity during the last 12 hours, to abstain from alcoholic or caffeine-containing beverages 24 hours before the exam, to wear light clothing, and to urinate 30 minutes before the beginning of the

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Dindar S. Bari, Haval Y. Yacoob Aldosky, Christian Tronstad, Håvard Kalvøy and Ørjan G. Martinsen

patient to rate her or his pain from 0 to 10 on a numerical rating scale (NRS) with the understanding that 0 is equal to no pain and 10 is equal to the worst pain imaginable [ 17 ]. Pain is a highly unpleasant physical sensation, which occurs because of the stimulation of pain receptors at the ends of nerves. The stimulation causes sodium to enter the nerve ending, which causes an electrical signal to build up in the nerve. When this electrical signal is large enough, it passes along the nerve to the brain, where the signal is interpreted as pain. Accurate assessment

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Oliver Pabst

, dependent on the sign of the applied voltage (or current) and the corresponding pinched hysteresis loop in the V-I plot is transversal [ 22 ]. The stratum corneum memristor experiences a memductance increase independent of the sign of the applied voltage and its pinched hysteresis loop is tangential [ 22 ]. The functioning of the here implemented memristor bridge depends on the physical conditions of the skin. If the galvanic contact through the sweat ducts is given under both corresponding electrodes (CC1 and CC2, see Fig. 1c) , similar functioning as in [ 15 , 16

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Natália T. Bellafronte, Marina R. Batistuti, Nathália Z. dos Santos, Héric Holland, Elen A. Romão and Paula G. Chiarello

Introduction Overweight and obese individuals have a body composition similar to those with chronic kidney disease (CKD): increased body fat sometimes added to lean mass depletion [ 1 , 2 ]. These conditions have a negative effect on physical capacity and are related to a higher risk of mortality [ 1 , 3 ] and lower life expectancy [ 4 ]. Thus, body composition assessment is important for these subjects. However, presence of edema and excess fat limit the application of classic methodologies, such as anthropometry [ 5 ]. Moreover, reference methods are

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Fred J. Pettersen

defined in section 1 , which is a problem since the engineering definition is what we actually need when evaluating a measurement system. To get around this problem, we use a synonym of the word sensitivity, perceptivity, to which we attach the engineering definition of sensitivity. Described in mathematical terms as (4) Ψ = δ Z δ p $$\mathbf{\Psi }=\frac{\delta \mathbf{Z}}{\delta p}$$ where Ψ is perceptivity, δ Z is change in measured impedance, and δ p is change in the phenomenon we want to test perceptivity against. Since an impedance change is