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Urszula Kizelbach

Abstract

Richard III’s courtship of Lady Anne in William Shakespeare’s King Richard III is a blend of courtly speech and sexual extravaganza. His sexual energy and power of seduction were invented by Shakespeare to enhance the theatrical effect of this figure and, at the same time, to present Richard as a tragic character. Richard’s eroticism in Act 1 Scene 2 makes him a complicated individual. Playing a seducer is one of the guises he uses to achieve his political aims on the one hand, and, on the other, the pose of a sexually attractive lover enables him to put his masculinity to the test. Throughout the scene Richard is haunted by his deformity that, together with his villainy, makes him a stranger to the world and an enemy to his family and the court. In order to overcome his self-image of a disproportional cripple he manifests his sexuality towards Anne to boost his self-esteem and to confirm that the lady will accept him despite his obvious physical shortcomings. This article uses Georges Bataille’s theory of eroticism and erotic desire to characterize Richard as a tragic individual and to explain the reasons behind his unexpected sexual behaviour in the seduction scene.

Open access

Fatemeh Modaresi Asem, Farah Lotfi Kashani and Shahram Vaziri

Abstract

Marriage conflicts lead to reduction of marriage, health and the healthy relationship with children. The side-effects of dissatisfaction with mental and physical health of spouses and children show the necessity of marriage interactions improvement and codification of various plans. This research attempts to present new results by investigating the effectiveness of four-factor therapy: the effect of therapy, therapy hope and expectation, increasing awareness, and ordered-behavior in marriage conflicts. This research is a semi-experimental based on the research type, 26 people were selected randomly among 40 people who were volunteering to take part in the therapy group and they were distributed into two groups experiment and control. The people who were in the experiment group experience than 2-hour sessions of group tetrahedron psychotherapy and the 54-questions questionnaire of marriage conflicts were applied in both groups as a pre-test and post-test questionnaire. Multi-variable covariance analysis was deployed in order to analyze the data. The data showed the significant difference between the scores of experimental group and control group and these results show the effectiveness of four-factor psychotherapy as an effective approach for reducing marriage conflicts and for improvement of couples′ relationships. The four-factor components of therapy can be effective on reducing marriage conflicts separately. Actually, this approach creates a relationship therapy (the hope creation in relationship improvement) and by this method the couple get noticed of their problem and understand how to modify their behavior and subsequently how to organize it.

Open access

Cinzia Chiandetti

References Aguiar, A., & Baillargeon, R. (1999). 2.5-month-old infants’ reasoning about when objects should and should not be occluded. Cognitive Psychology, 39 , 116–157. Baillargeon, R. (2004). Infants’ physical world. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13 (3), 89–94. Baiocchi, V., & Chiandetti, C. (2016). Chicks run harder toward a consonant over a dissonant clucking hen: Biological roots for the appreciation of consonant sounds. In Trieste Symposium on Perception and Cognition , Trieste, Italy, November 4, P03. Bateson, P

Open access

Alma Sheko and Alma Braimllari Spaho

References Ali, F., Rasoolimanesh, S. M., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Ryu, K. (2018). An assessment of the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) in hospitality research. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management , 30(1), 514-538. Auramo, J., Kauremaa, J., & Tanskanen, K. (2005). Benefits of IT in supply chain management: an explorative study of progressive companies. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management , 35 (2), 82-100. Baihaqi, I., & Sohal, A. S. (2013