synthesis. In S. Botley and T. McEnery (eds) Corpus-based and Computational Approaches to Discourse Anaphora. Philadelphia and Amsterdam: John Benjamins: 1-39. Botley, S. and T. McEnery. 2001. Proximal and distal demonstratives: A corpus-based study. Journal of English Linguistics, 29: 214-233. Botley, S. 2006. Indirect anaphora: Testing the limits of corpus-based linguistics. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 11: 73-112. Brockelmann, C. 1977. Tariikh Aladab Al3arabi [History of Arabic Literature], vol. 1
Samir O. Jarbou and Fathi Migdadi
., Vilkman, E., Alku, P., & Oksanen, H. (1996). Physical variation related to stress and emotionally state: a preliminary study. Journal of Phonetics, 24 , 313-335. Lieberman, P., & Michaels, S. B. (1962). Some aspects of fundamental frequency and envelope amplitude as related to the emotional content of speech. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 34 , 922-927. Markel, N. N., Bern M. F., & Phillis, J. A. (1973). The relationship between words and tone-of-voice. Language and Speech, 16 , 15-21. Mason, W. A. (2012). Basic emotions: a
Samer Omar Jarbou
uses. In B. Fox, ed., Studies in anaphora . Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 205-54. Jarbou, S., 2010. Accessibility vs. physical proximity: An analysis of exophoric demonstrative practice in Spoken Jordanian Arabic. Journal of Pragmatics , vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 3078-3097. Jarbou, S., 2012. Medial deictic demonstratives in Arabic: Fact or fallacy. Pragmatics , vol. 22, no.1, pp. 103-118. Jarbou, S. and Migdady, F., 2012. Testing the limits of anaphoric distance in Classical Arabic: A corpus-based study. Research in Language , vol. 10, no. 4, pp
Godwin Awabil and Eric Anane
This study explored the factor structure and reliability of a new Health Behaviour Inventory (HBI) to assess the health behaviour of adults. Data in this study were collected from a total of 581 postgraduate students of the University of Cape Coast. The HBI was subjected to principal component factor analysis with Varimax (Kaiser Normalization). The Kaiser Meyer–Olkin measure was used to verify the sampling adequacy for the factor analysis, which yielded KMO of .808. This indicated that the sample size was adequate and factor analysis could be performed on the data set. Bartlett’s test of Sphericity (χ2 = 8133.626, p = 0.000) was significant for the sample. The analysis yielded six factors with robust reliabilities. The six factors were: alcohol intake, smoking, dietary behaviour, physical exercise, salt intake and weight management. With respect to the reliability of the instrument, the HBI items yielded a Cronbach’s alpha of .792 for the total scale. The exploratory factor analyses demonstrated good factor structure and internal consistency. However, since this is the first study to explore the HBI structure, the researchers recommended that further investigations into the psychometric properties (such as the predictive validity) of the instrument be carried out.
Osenweugwor Ngozi Aihie and Blessing Ijeoma Ohanaka
The purpose of the study was to investigate the levels of perceived academic stress among undergraduate students in a University in Nigeria. Purposive sampling was used to select three Faculties from the fourteen Faculties in the University. Simple random sampling was used to select 427 undergraduate students from the three Faculties to participate in the study. Data on perceived academic stress were collected with the aid of the Perceived Academic Stress Scale (PASS) which was adapted from Bedewy and Gabriel (2015) and re-validated for the study. Data collected for the study were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics. The perceived academic stress levels of the respondents were compared on the basis of sex, age, level /year of study and Faculty /course of study. The hypotheses formulated for the study were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that male undergraduate students reported higher academic stress level than the females. Undergraduate students in the Faculty of Physical Sciences reported significantly higher academic stress levels than students in the Faculties of Education and Social Sciences. Final year students also reported higher academic stress than students in the first and middle years of study. There was no difference in perceived academic stress levels based on the age of the students. It was concluded that sex of student, level of study and course of study influence perception of academic stress among undergraduate students. Implications for Students’ counselling were discussed.
Valeria Biasi, Luca Mallia, Paolo Russo, Francesca Menozzi, Rita Cerutti and Cristiano Violani
). The Effectiveness of Clinical Colloquium Established by the “Drawing Recall” Technique in University Counselling Services for Student Mental Health. Health , 7, 521-532. Buysse, D.J., Reynolds, C.F., Monk, T.H., & Berman, S.R. (1989). The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research, 28 , 193–213. Byrne, B.M. (2008). Testing for multigroup equivalence of a measuring instrument: a walk through the process. Psicothema , 20(4), 872e882. Carden, A.I., & Feicht, R. (1991). Homesickness
Grace Omejevwe Akpochafo
. Quarterly Journal of Career and Organizational Counselling, 8(3), 69-84. Hinkelman and Luzzo (2007). Mental health and career development of college students. Journal of Counselling and Development, 85, 143-147. Kalantarkousheh, S.M., Moghagheghi, H; and Hosseini, S.M. (2013). Surveying the relationship between locus of control and academic achievementamong students at Allameh Tabatabaol University. International Journal of Physical and Social Sciences, 3(12), 378-389. Kinanee, J.B. (2009). Factors in the career decision
). Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology , 80, 515–522.  Fouts, R., 1973. Acquisition and testing of gestural signs in four young Chimpanzees. Science , 180, 978–80.  Fouts, R., 1976. Transfer of signed responses in American sign language from vocal English stimuli to physical object stimuli by a Chimpanzee (Pan). Learning and Motivation , 7, 458–75.  Fouts, R., 1983. Chimpanzee language and elephant tails: A theoretical synthesis. In de Luce, J., Wilder, H.T. (Eds.), Language in primates: Perspectives and implications . New