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O. Fenton, S. Vero, R.P.O. Schulte, L. O’Sullivan, G. Bondi and R.E. Creamer

traditionally measured in the laboratory using pressure plates (or equivalent devices) ( American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM], 2008 ). The S-term is defined as the absolute value of the slope (known as S-value) of the SWRC at its inflection point ( Dexter, 2004a ). Therefore, according to the S-theory, several aspects of soil physical behaviour reflect the same S-term regardless of soil type ( Dexter and Czyż, 2007 ). Thus, the S-Index offers a simple scale that has the same physical meaning regardless of soil type and can therefore be used to compare SPQ across

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Alok Dhaundiyal and Pramod Tewari

R eferences [1] Dhaundiyal A., Gupta V.K. The analysis of pine needles as a substrate for gasification. Journal of Water, Energy and Environment, Hydro Nepal 2014;15:73–81. doi: /10.3126/hn.v15i0.11299 [2] Burnham A.K, Braun R.L. Global kinetic analysis of complex materials. Energy Fuels 1999;13:1–22. doi: 10.1021/ef9800765 [3] Burnham A. K., Schmidt B. J., Braun R. L. A test of parallel reaction model using kinetic measurements on hydrous pyrolysis residues. Geochem 1995;23:931–939. doi: 10.1016/0146-6380(95)00069-0 [4] Galgano A

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Prans Brazdausks, Maris Puke, Nikolajs Vedernikovs and Irena Kruma

: inhibitors and mechanisms of inhibition. Bioresource Technology , 2000, vol. 74, N 1, p. 25-33. 14. Harmsen, P., Huijgen, W., Bermudez, L., Bakker, R. Literature review of physical and chemical pretreatment processes for lignocellulosic biomass . Wageningen: Wageningen UR, Food & Biobased Research, 2010, [E-book]. 15. Mamman, A. S., Lee, J., Kim, Y., Hwang, I.T., Park, N., Hwang, Y.K., Chang, J. Furfural: Hemicellulose/xylose-derived biochemical. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining , 2008, vol. 2, N 5, p. 438-454. 16

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Zanita Avotniece, Maris Klavins and Valerijs Rodinovs

, 2001, vol. 7, p. 731-746. 15. IPCC. Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2007, p. 1-18. 16. Karl, T.R., Trenberth, K.E. Modern Global Climate Change. Science, 2003, vol. 302, p. 1719-1723. 17. Kažys, J., Stankūnavičius, G., Rimkus, E., Bukantis, A., Valiukas, D. Long-range Alternation of Extreme High Day and

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Maris Klavins, Valdis Bisters and Juris Burlakovs

, reforming mechanism and model for biomass gasification-An overview. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review 2009:13(3):594-604. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2008.01.009 [70] Reed T. B., Das A., Handbook of biomass downdraft gasifier engine systems. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988. [71] Hindsgaul C., Schramm J., Gratz L., Henriksen U., Bentzen J. Physical and chemical characterization of particles in producer gas from wood chips. Bioresource Technology 2000:73:147-155. doi:10.1016/S0960-8524(99)00153-4 [72

Open access

Lech Bałachowski

, Issue 4 , pp.1021-1048. 14. Dymarski C., Dymarski P.: Developing Methodology for Model Tests of Floating Platforms in Low -Depth Towing Tank. Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, 2016, Vol. 16, Issue 1, pp. 159-167 15. Garnier, J., Gaudin, C., Springman, S. M., Culligan, P. J., Goodings, D., Konig, D., ... & Thorel, L. : Catalogue of scaling laws and similitude questions in geotechnical centrifuge modelling. International Journal of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics, 2007, 7

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Giuseppina G. Lai, Bachisio M. Padedda, Carlos E. Wetzel, Antonella Lugliè, Nicola Sechi and Luc Ector


Karst springs are considered among the most vulnerable groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Despite their ecological value and importance as strategic water sources, Mediterranean karst springs are still poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to analyse the epilithic diatom assemblages and to test their usefulness as indicators of environmental quality on the Su Gologone spring (central-eastern Sardinia, Italy), a biotope of great natural value and a precious source of drinking water. A total of 89 diatom taxa were found with 25 new records for Sardinian running waters. Species richness, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou indices showed good biotic integrity. The dominant taxa were alkaliphilous, halophobous-oligohalobous exigent, xeno- oligosaprobic and characteristic of oligotrophic waters. The eutrophication/pollution index − diatom based (EPI-D) and the Navicula Nitzschia Surirella indices indicated respectively an excellent/good biological water quality and a low physical disturbance. However, the biological and chemical oxygen demand, and the microbiological variables (E. coli, fecal and total coliforms) revealed an organic contamination of the water, although moderate. The judgment provided by the EPI-D should be verified after updating of the index. In fact, 10 taxa found in this study are not currently considered by the EPI-D method.

Open access

Judit Katona-Kovács, Chris High and Gusztáv Nemes

Importance of Animation Actions in the Operation of Hungarian Local Action Groups

The EU LEADER initiative has been running for 20 years and plays an important role in the development of European rural areas, however, in countries joining to the EU after 2004 it is still a relatively new phenomenon. In Hungary, for example, the LEADER+ programme was launched in 2005 with an experimental phase (called a "LEADER type initiative") and has developed to be a fully applied EU programme only in the current programming period. This paper explores the implementation of the LEADER programme in eastern Hungary. The examined Local Action Groups face diverse challenges concerning human, social, physical and financial capital, networks and social learning. The study investigates the opportunities and threats faced by the LAGs, with special regard to institutions, governance and applied initiatives. The roles of the LAGs within the social, economic and cultural context of given areas are examined through Lukesch's (2007) model FOG - forms of governance. The model is a tool to explore the interrelationships local partnership, local needs and local socio-cultural environment. The results of the FOG test show that the prevailing mode of governance in the examined LAGs emphasises animation actions as important elements of operation. Although the importance of animation actions is underlined by the result of the test, their presence between the initiatives is less than it should be. Good examples of animation actions are given: participatory video and a case study of its Hungarian application are introduced. Finally the role of Universities in animation actions is emphasised and closer relation of them with RD networks is called for.

Open access

Sara E. Vero, Mark G. Healy, Tiernan Henry, Rachel E. Creamer, Tristan G. Ibrahim, Patrick J. Forrestal, Karl G. Richards and Owen Fenton

., Lobo, D. and Cornelis, W.M. 2015. Evaluation of soil physical quality index S for some tropical and temperate medium-textured soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 79 : 9–19. 10.2136/sssaj2014.06.0259 Moncada M.P., Ball B.C., Gabriels D., Lobo D. Cornelis W.M. 2015 Evaluation of soil physical quality index S for some tropical and temperate medium-textured soils Soil Science Society of America Journal 79 9 19 Nimmo, J.R., Rubin, J. and Hammermeister, D.P. 1987. Unsaturated flow in a centrifugal field: measurement of hydraulic conductivity and testing

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Johannes Frauenlob, Marta Nava, Stefano D’Amico, Heinrich Grausgruber, Mara Lucisano and Regine Schoenlechner

1 Introduction Today, extensive numbers of analytical parameters are used to describe wheat and wheat-flour quality, but accurate and reliable predictions of end-use qualities for bakery-use are still highly challenging ( Békés, 2012a ). Furthermore, the sample sizes in early generation grain-breeding and testing of newly tailored baking additives are limited. Therefore, micro-methods are used to determine the quality characteristics ( Belitz et al., 1978 ; Kaur et al., 2004 ). Several down-scaled versions of the common wheat-analyzing tools, such as