and prevention (SEFIP) study. Arch Intern Med 170:179-85. Leipzig RM, Cumming RG, Tinetti ME. 1999. Drugs and falls in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis: I. Psychotropic drugs. J Am Geriatr Soc 47:30-9. Lord SR, Castell S, Corcoran J, Dayhew J, Matters B, Shan A, et al. 2003. The effect of group exercise on physical functioning and falls in frail older people living in retirement villages: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 51:1685-92. Lord SR, Lloyd DG, Li SK. 1996. Sensori- motor
Zofia Ignasiak, Anna Skrzek, Sławomir Kozieł, Teresa Sławińska, Paweł Posłuszny and Krystyna Rożek
Zofia Ignasiak, Teresa Sławińska and Robert M. Malina
children and adolescents(1958-2003). Scand J Med Sci Spor 17:497-507. Tompkinson GR, Olds TS. 2007. Secular changes in pediatric aerobic fitness test performance: The global picture. Med Sport Sci 50:46-66. Trześniowski R. 1996. Rozwój fizyczny i sprawność fizyczna młodzieży szkolnej w Polsce. Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego Józefa Piłsudskiego w Warszawie, Z warsztatów Badawczych. Westerstahl M, Barnekow-Bergkvist M, Hedberg G, Jansson E. 2003. Secular trends in body dimensions and physical fitness among adolescents in
Veronika Candráková Čerňanová, Ján Čerňan, Zuzana Danková and Daniela Siváková
. 2008. Relationship of physical fitness test results and hockey playing potential in elite-level ice hockey players. J Strength Cond Res 22:1535-43. Comstock BA, Solomon-Hill G, Flanagan SD, Earp SD, Luk HY, Dobbins KA, et al. 2011. Validity of the Myotest® in measuring force and power production in the squat and bench press. J Strenght Cond Res 25(8):2293-97. Cox MH, Miles DS, Verde TJ, Rhodes EC. 1995. Applied physiology of ice hockey. Sports Med 19:174-201. De Lorenzo A, Andreoli A, Serrano P, D’Orazio N, Cervelli, V, Volpe SL. 2003. Body cell
reciprocal as we assume: The role of personality, flirting and physical attractiveness , Eur. J. Pers., 25 , 120-32 Bar-Tal D., L. Saxe, 1976, The perception of similarly and dissimilarly attractive couples and individuals , J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 33 , 772-81 Berscheid E., K. Dion, E. Walster, W. Walster, 1971, Physical attractiveness and dating choice: A test of matching hypothesis , J. Exp. Soc. Psychol., 7 , 173-89 Bleske-Rechek A., M. Lighthall, 2010, Attractiveness and rivalry in
Walter King Yan Ho, Md. Dilsad Ahmed, Chi Ian Leong, Patrick Chan, Rudolph Leon Van Niekerk, Fan Huang, Jessica Chen, Nikon Chan, João Silva and Patrick Ip
References Ahmed MD, Ho WKY, Lee JY. 2016. Adolescence age transition and impact of physical activity on the perception of success, self-esteem and wellbeing. J Phy Edu Sports 124:776-84. Ahmed MD, Ho WKY, Van Niekerk LR, Morris T, Elayaraja M, Lee Ki-Ch, Randles E. 2017. The self-esteem goal orientation and health related physical fitness of active and inactive adolescent students. Cogent Psychology 4:1-14. Al-Hazzaa HM, Abahussain NA, Al-Sobayel HI, Qahwaji DM, Alsulaiman NA, Musaiger AO. 2014. Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and abdominal
Wanda Kozak-Zychman and Anna Szarlip
The goal of the study is to analyse and evaluate a complete mortality of individuals buried in the cemetery at the hospital and the church of Holy Spirit in Lublin. The main question is whether and to what extent the results of research into the subject will reflect the physical condition and the low social status of individuals from the Holy Spirit hospital-poorhouse. The comparison includes burials of Lublin burghers, church dignitaries and religious brothers and sisters of the Cathedral and Pobrygidkowski Church. This study discusses such issues as the share of children, juveniles and adults, the sex ratio, distribution of age and sex of adult and the average life span for men and women. The differences in the cumulative distributions of age frequency (dx) for the compared cemeteries were assessed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. To evaluate the differences in average life span of adults the Student’s t-test was used after verification of the equality of variance by using the F-Snedecor test. The cemetery at the hospital and the church of Holy Spirit clearly stands out among comparable sites, not only in the way of burying the dead. The study of individuals buried in the Holy Spirit cemetery showed: the largest share of children and juveniles, as well as small percentage of individuals over the age of 50 years, which resulted from a low average life span for both men and women (significant differences). The comparison of the cumulative relative numbers (dx) from the interval of 10-15 year shows this percentage to be the highest and remain so up to the last interval, i.e. 60 years and more (significant differences for group 15-20 years - compared with the Cathedral and the 30-40 years - compared with the Pobrygidkowski Church). A poor physical condition, clearly related with low social status, is indicated by a variety of illnesses, injuries and malformations which were recorded in a large number of the skeletal remains, i.e. more than 70% of individuals.
Physical growth of preterm girls with visual impairment
The aim of this study was to estimate pubertal age and to assess the level of physical development of preterm girls with defective vision. The study material - anthropometric data (body height and weight, BMI) and information on the age of menarche were collected from 155 subjects with defective vision (partially sighted and blind). Median age at menarche was estimated by probit analysis. The girls, ranging in age from 7-18 years, attended Centers for Blind and Partially Sighted Children in Wroclaw and Cracow (Poland). 22% of the subjects were prematurely born, were born with low birth mass and their sight defect diagnosed as retinopathy due to prematurity (ROP). The girls with ophthalmic impairments were shorter and lighter than their age peers from the reference data. Blind girls reached pubertal age 2 months earlier than the partially sighted (Me=13.31 and Me=13.44) and, the preterm subjects entered puberty 6 months earlier than the full-term girls, irrespective of degree of defect (Me=12.93 and Me=13.42, respectively). The results suggest that earlier puberty is associated with visual impairment. The results show also that irrespective of the degree of defect, preterm girls reach menarche significantly earlier than those who were full-term. It seems possible that mechanisms responsible for earlier puberty in the preterm subjects and with low body mass play an important a role in sexual maturation in girls with sight dysfunction. There appears to be a need to pursue further studies in this sphere.
Andrzej Wiśniewski, Wojciech Jarosz, Anna Czajkowska, Anna Mróz, Marcin Smolarczyk, Andrzej Magiera, Przemysław Kowalczyk, Dagmara Zimmerman-Rysz and Marek Kowalczyk
Rev 78(1):67–77. Choła Ł, Zych M, Pilis K, Michalski C, Pilis W, Pilis A. 2013. Wpływ 6-miesięcznego pobytu wysokogórskiego na skład ciała i wydolność fizyczną żołnierzy. Prace naukowe Akademii im. Jana Długosza w Częstochowie, Kult Fiz 12(2):193–6. Craig CL, Russell SJ. 1999. Reliability and validity of measures of adult physical activity patterns. w: Mini-symposium: Can public health surveillance of physical activity be standardized internationally? Med Sci Sports Exerc 31:389. Dobosz J, Mayorga-Vega D, Viciana J. 2015. Percentile Values of
The maternal first birth age is an important predictor of the size, composition and future growth of population and a wide range of birth outcomes such as birth weight, multiple births, and birth defects. This paper aims to test the hypothesis that age of mothers at first childbirth depends on their socio-economic status and lifestyle behaviour. The examined sample emanated from the WOMID national cross-sectional survey on middle-aged women’s health and life quality in 2000-2004, and it consisted of 1,924 parous women born between 1953 and 1969 and aged 35-45 years at the time of examination. Social status was defined by place of residence, educational attainment, employment status, financial strain, and lifestyle behaviour by physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol use, weight status and self-reported health status. The association of age at first childbirth with social status characteristics was adjusted to marital status and use of oral contraceptives (OCU). Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used to cluster studied variables. Predictive factors for first childbirth timing were determined by a factorial design with the multi- way ANOVA and their interactions. The odds ratios of the factors associated with later maternal age at first childbirth were evaluated through multiple logistic regressions with backward elimination. Statistics for this analysis were performed using STATISTICA software, Version 10.0 (StatSoft Polska). It was found that large city residents with higher educational levels, currently employed and without financial strain, non-smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol, participating in physical exercises and maintaining proper weight and oral contraceptive users were more likely to delay their first childbirth over the median age of 23 years, than their counterparts. The most important predictors of the maternal first birth age were: educational attainment (F=19.8; p<0.001), place of residence (F=4.2 p<0.021), employment status (F=3.7; p=0.026), tobacco use (F=5.0; p=0.007), and use of oral contraceptives (F=3.6; p=0.033),. They explained 15% of the total variance in the maternal first birth age. The probability of delivering first child at more advanced age was almost two times higher for large-city residents than for rural counterparts (OR=1.58); five times higher for women with better educational qualifications as compared to primarily educated peers (OR=5.24). Currently employed women were 1.5 times more likely to be primiparous at more advanced age than the unemployed counterparts (OR=1.5). Current smokers were 1.3 times less likely than their never smoked peers to deliver a child at older age (OR=0.75). The OC users were 1.5 times more likely for delaying childbirth than never OCU counterparts. The study have revealed key sets of social predictor variables for maternal first birth age. They include: place of residence, educational attainment and employment status, use of oral contraceptives and smoking habit. Women’s education appears to be the most predictive factor for entering the motherhood.
Tomasz Ignasiak, Zofia Ignasiak, Ewa Ziółkowska-Łajp, Krystyna Rożek, Teresa Sławińska and Anna Skrzek
, Marcus BH, Kampert JB, Garcia ME, Kohl HW, Blair SN. 1999. Comparison of lifestyle and structured interventions to increase physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness: a randomized trial. JAMA 281(4):327-34. Flegal KM, Wei R, Ogden C. 2002. Weightfor- stature compared with body massindex-for-age growth charts for the United States from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Am J Clin Nutr 75:761-66. Frenkel I. 2003. Ludność, zatrudnienie i bezrobocie na wsi. Dekada przemian. Warszawa: Instytut Rozwoju Wsi i Rolnictwa PAN