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I. Šoltýsová, D. Toropilová and T. de Vringer

Abstract

Active ingredients in pharmaceuticals differ by their physico-chemical properties and their bioavailability therefore varies. The most frequently used and most convenient way of administration of medicines is oral, however many drugs are little soluble in water. Thus they are not sufficiently effective and suitable for such administration. For this reason a system of lipid based formulations (LBF) was developed. Series of formulations were prepared and tested in water and biorelevant media. On the basis of selection criteria, there were selected formulations with the best emulsification potential, good dispersion in the environment and physical stability. Samples of structurally different drugs included in the Class II of the Biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) were obtained, namely Griseofulvin, Glibenclamide, Carbamazepine, Haloperidol, Itraconazol, Triclosan, Praziquantel and Rifaximin, for testing of maximal saturation in formulations prepared from commercially available excipients. Methods were developed for preparation of formulations, observation of emulsification and its description, determination of maximum solubility of drug samples in the respective formulation and subsequent analysis. Saturation of formulations with drugs showed that formulations 80 % XA and 20 % Xh, 35 % XF and 65 % Xh were best able to dissolve the drugs which supports the hypothesis that it is desirable to identify limited series of formulations which could be generally applied for this purpose.

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Stepanović, Tamara Ilić, Nikola Krstić and Sanda Dimitrijević

.: Serological screening of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infections in Turkey. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 2012, 125, 503-508. 14. Magnis J., Lorentz S., Guardone L., Grimm F., Magi M., Naucke J.T., Deplazes P.: Morphometric analyses of canine blood microfilariae isolated by the Knott’s test enables Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens species-specific and Acanthocheilonema (syn. Dipetalonema) genus-specific diagnosis. Parasit Vectors 2013, 6, 48-52. 15. Mc Call J.W.: The safety-net story about macro cyclic lactone heartworm

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I. Šulla, V. Balik, S. Horňák and V. Ledecký

Abstract

Severe spinal cord injuries (SCI), causing physical handicaps and accompanied by many serious complications, remains one of the most challenging problems in both, human and veterinary health care practices. The central nervous system in mammals does not regenerate, so the neurological deficits in a dog following SCI persists for the rest of its life and the affected animals display an image of permanent suffering. Diagnostics are based on: neurological examination, plain x-rays of vertebral column, x-rays of the vertebral column following intrathecal administration of a water-soluble contrast medium (myelography), x-rays of the vertebral column following epidural administration of a contrast medium (epidurography), computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Currently, only limited therapeutic measures are available for the dogs with SCIs. They include: the administration of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) during the acute stage; early spinal cord decompression; stabilisation of vertebral fractures or luxations; prevention and treatment of complications, and expert rehabilitation. Together with the progress in the understanding of pathophysiologic events occurring after SCI, different therapeutic strategies have been instituted, including the local delivery of MPSS, the utilisation of novel pharmacological agents, hypothermia, and stem/precursor cell transplantation have all been tested in the experimental models and preclinical trials with promising results. The aim of this review is the presentation of the generally accepted methods of diagnostics and management of dogs with SCIs, as well as to discuss new therapeutic modalities. The research strategy involved a PubMed, Medline (Ovid), Embase (Ovid) and ISI Web of Science literature search from January 2001 to December 2017 using the term “spinal cord injury”, in the English language literature; also references from selected papers were scanned and relevant articles included.

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Bogdan Janicki, Anna Kochowicz, Mateusz Buzała and Wiesław Krumrych

.: Laboratory indicators of blood horses - reference values and interpretation. Edited by PIWet 2003, Pulawy, Poland. 17. Muñoz A., Castejõn F.M., Rubio D.M., Vivo R., Agüera E.I., Escribano B.M., Santisteban R.: How erythrocyte and plasma lactate concentrations are related in Andalusian horses during an exercise test and recuperation. J Equine Sci 1996, 7 , 35-42. 18. Muñoz A., Cuesta I., Riber C., Gata J., Trigo P., Castejõn F.M.: Trot asymmetry in relation to physical performance and metabolism in equine endurance rides. Equine Vet J 2006

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Özgür Aksoy, Başak Kurt, Celal Şahin Ermutlu, Kürşat Çeçen, Sadık Yayla, Metin Ekinci, İsa Özaydin and Süleyman Erdinç Ünlüer

References 1. Amarpal K.P., Aithal H.P., Pawde A.M., Paratap K., Gugjoo M.B.: A retrospective study on the prevalence of obstructive urolithiasis in domestic animals during a period of ten years. Adv Anim Vet Sci 2013, 1, 88–92. 2. Bearelly S., Rao S., Fekrat S.: Anaphylaxis following intravenous fluorescein angiography in a vitreoretinal clinic: report of 4 cases. Can J Ophthalmol 2009, 44, 444–445. 3. Cipolla A.F., Khedroo L.G., Casella P. A.: Fluorescein test for rupture of urinary bladder. Surgery 1953, 33, 102–106. 4. Connell R

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Krzysztof Wojtas, Przemysław Cwynar and Roman Kołacz

of heat tolerance by physical fitness. J Appl Physiol 1998, 84, 207-214. 13. Schmidt Nielsen K.: Animal Physiology. Adaptation and environment. Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, U.K., 1997. 14. Silanikove N.: Effects of heat stress on the welfare of extensively managed domestic ruminants. Livestock Prod Sci, 2000, 67, 1-18. 15. Singh M., Rai A.K., More T., Dhaliwal J.S.: Note on comparative physiological response of sheep and goats to high ambient temperature. Indian J Anim Sci 1980, 50, 202

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Roberto Tocci, Clara Sargentini, Andrea Martini, Luisa Andrenelli, Antonio Pezzati, Doria Benvenuti and Alessandro Giorgetti

References 1. A.N.AC.R.HA.I.: Il cavallo Haflinger nel paese di origine. Available in: http://www.haflinger.it/test/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=49&Itemid=111&lang=it,2017. 2. Bentley P.J.: Endocrines and osmoregulation. A comparative account in vertebrates. Springer Science & Business Media, Nedlands, Western Australia, 2002. 3. Bertram J.E.A., Gosline J.M.: Functional design of horse hoof keratin: the modulation of mechanical properties through hydration effects. J Exp Biol 1987, 130, 121

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Jacek Kijowski, Celina Marciszewska, Renata Cegielska-Radziejewska and Anna Popiół

Salmonella spp. 25. Polish Standard PN-A-86524: 1994/ Az2: 2002. Poultry meat in carcass parts. 26. Polish Standard PN-A-82107: 1996. Delicatessen. Organoleptic and physical tests. 27. Polish Standard PN-A-86520: 1998. Poultry products. Poultry carcasses. 28. Rao M.S., Chander R., Sharma A.: Synergistic effect of chitooligosaccharides and lysozyme for meat preservation. Food Sci Technol 2008, 41 , 1995-2001. 29. Tamblyn K.C., Conner D.E.: Bactericidal activity of organic acids against

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Małgorzata Dzierzęcka and Anna Charuta

., Capozza R.F., Cointry G., Bozzini C., Olivera M., Zanchetta J.R., Bozzini C.E.: Dexamethasone effects on mechanical, geometric and densitometric properties of rat femur diaphyses as described by peripheral quantitative computerized tomography and bending tests. Bone 1995, 16, 119-124. 7. Firth E.C.: The response of bone, articular cartilage and tendon to exercise in the horse. J Anat 2006, 208 , 513-526. 8. Firth E.C., Rogers C.W., Doube M., Jopson N.B.: Musculoskeletal responses of 2-year-old Thoroughbred horses to early training

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Roman Aleksiewicz, Krzysztof Lutnicki, Marcin Bojarski, Ilona Al-Mutari and Aneta Bocheńska

.U.: Continuous measurements of renal perfusion in pigs by means of intravascular Doppler. Kidney Int 2001, 59, 1439–1447. 18. Naqvi J., Yap K.H., Ahmad G., Ghosh J.: Transcranial Doppler ultrasound: a review of the physical principles and major applications in critical care. Int J Vasc Med 2013, 6, 1–13. 19. Ozel D., Ozel B.D., Ozkan F., Kutlu R.: Evalution of renal involvement in patients with Behçet disease: Need to be aware about potential hypertension in long term follow up? Pol J Radiol 2016, 81, 5–9. 20. Pope J.C., Hernanz-Schulman M., Showalter P