Agnieszka Jodełko, Monika Szymańska-Czerwińska, Anna Kycko and Krzysztof Niemczuk
cells were administered .per os every 48 hours to guinea pigs in experimental group II. Animals belonging to group III received 1 mL of bacterial suspension containing 10 6 .C. burnetii orally once. Individuals in group IV were given 1 mL of the inoculum containing 10 6 bacterial cells every 48 hours. General physical examination of guinea pigs from all groups was carried out daily, and blood from all animals was collected to determine the titres of specific antibodies on days 5 and 7 and then weekly during the experiment. After 12 weeks the guinea pigs were
Iwona Matraszek-Żuchowska, Barbara Woźniak, Katarzyna Sielska and Andrzej Posyniak
exhibits high resistance to physical and chemical factors as well as the action of proteolytic enzymes.
Breaking long chains of keratin proteins in the hair structure to release steroid esters for further extraction in the next stage requires the use of strong reducing compounds. Adopting suggestions in the available literature, the suitability of various compounds for this purpose was tested in preliminary studies. Basic hydrolysis was carried out with sodium hydroxide, acid hydrolysis with hydrochloric acid, and hydrolysis with phosphate buffer as well as with sodium
Jia-San Zheng, Jing-Nie, Ting-Ting Zhu, Hong-Ri Ruan, Xue-Wei and Rui-Wu
. For this study, sixteen healthy 12- to 16-month-old beagles (eight males and eight females weighing 5.1 ± 0.2 kg) were chosen, and routine immunisation and deworming were performed. The animals were housed under the same conditions for four weeks, and the feeding and management regimens were consistent throughout the experiment. The dogs were subjected to physical examination before the experiment to confirm their good health.
Establishment of an experimental animal model . Before injecting gentamicin, the plasma concentration of SCr in a test dog was measured as
Natalia Mazur-Panasiuk, Jacek Żmudzki and Grzegorz Woźniakowski
carcasses ( 3 ).
ASFV resistance to physical treatment
Over a span of many years, numerous experiments were dedicated to ASFV stability. As far back as 1921, Montgomery ( 30 ) demonstrated that ASFV is extremely resistant to high temperatures, putrefaction and desiccation. Much later, Coggins ( 5 ) evidenced high ASFV resistance to selected chemical (trypsin and EDTA) and physical treatments (freezing/thawing and ultrasonic waves). In the same study he successfully collected viable virus after 1 h incubation at 56°C and one week at 37°C. Plowright and Parker ( 42
Active ingredients in pharmaceuticals differ by their physico-chemical properties and their bioavailability therefore varies. The most frequently used and most convenient way of administration of medicines is oral, however many drugs are little soluble in water. Thus they are not sufficiently effective and suitable for such administration. For this reason a system of lipid based formulations (LBF) was developed. Series of formulations were prepared and tested in water and biorelevant media. On the basis of selection criteria, there were selected formulations with the best emulsification potential, good dispersion in the environment and physical stability. Samples of structurally different drugs included in the Class II of the Biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) were obtained, namely Griseofulvin, Glibenclamide, Carbamazepine, Haloperidol, Itraconazol, Triclosan, Praziquantel and Rifaximin, for testing of maximal saturation in formulations prepared from commercially available excipients. Methods were developed for preparation of formulations, observation of emulsification and its description, determination of maximum solubility of drug samples in the respective formulation and subsequent analysis. Saturation of formulations with drugs showed that formulations 80 % XA and 20 % Xh, 35 % XF and 65 % Xh were best able to dissolve the drugs which supports the hypothesis that it is desirable to identify limited series of formulations which could be generally applied for this purpose.
Severe spinal cord injuries (SCI), causing physical handicaps and accompanied by many serious complications, remains one of the most challenging problems in both, human and veterinary health care practices. The central nervous system in mammals does not regenerate, so the neurological deficits in a dog following SCI persists for the rest of its life and the affected animals display an image of permanent suffering. Diagnostics are based on: neurological examination, plain x-rays of vertebral column, x-rays of the vertebral column following intrathecal administration of a water-soluble contrast medium (myelography), x-rays of the vertebral column following epidural administration of a contrast medium (epidurography), computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Currently, only limited therapeutic measures are available for the dogs with SCIs. They include: the administration of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) during the acute stage; early spinal cord decompression; stabilisation of vertebral fractures or luxations; prevention and treatment of complications, and expert rehabilitation. Together with the progress in the understanding of pathophysiologic events occurring after SCI, different therapeutic strategies have been instituted, including the local delivery of MPSS, the utilisation of novel pharmacological agents, hypothermia, and stem/precursor cell transplantation have all been tested in the experimental models and preclinical trials with promising results. The aim of this review is the presentation of the generally accepted methods of diagnostics and management of dogs with SCIs, as well as to discuss new therapeutic modalities. The research strategy involved a PubMed, Medline (Ovid), Embase (Ovid) and ISI Web of Science literature search from January 2001 to December 2017 using the term “spinal cord injury”, in the English language literature; also references from selected papers were scanned and relevant articles included.
Bogdan Janicki, Anna Kochowicz, Mateusz Buzała and Wiesław Krumrych
.: Laboratory indicators of blood horses - reference values and interpretation. Edited by PIWet 2003, Pulawy, Poland.
17. Muñoz A., Castejõn F.M., Rubio D.M., Vivo R., Agüera E.I., Escribano B.M., Santisteban R.: How erythrocyte and plasma lactate concentrations are related in Andalusian horses during an exercise test and recuperation. J Equine Sci 1996, 7 , 35-42.
18. Muñoz A., Cuesta I., Riber C., Gata J., Trigo P., Castejõn F.M.: Trot asymmetry in relation to physical performance and metabolism in equine endurance rides. Equine Vet J 2006
Özgür Aksoy, Başak Kurt, Celal Şahin Ermutlu, Kürşat Çeçen, Sadık Yayla, Metin Ekinci, İsa Özaydin and Süleyman Erdinç Ünlüer
1. Amarpal K.P., Aithal H.P., Pawde A.M., Paratap K., Gugjoo M.B.: A retrospective study on the prevalence of obstructive urolithiasis in domestic animals during a period of ten years. Adv Anim Vet Sci 2013, 1, 88–92.
2. Bearelly S., Rao S., Fekrat S.: Anaphylaxis following intravenous fluorescein angiography in a vitreoretinal clinic: report of 4 cases. Can J Ophthalmol 2009, 44, 444–445.
3. Cipolla A.F., Khedroo L.G., Casella P. A.: Fluorescein test for rupture of urinary bladder. Surgery 1953, 33, 102–106.
4. Connell R
Krzysztof Wojtas, Przemysław Cwynar and Roman Kołacz
of heat tolerance by physical fitness. J Appl Physiol 1998, 84, 207-214.
13. Schmidt Nielsen K.: Animal Physiology. Adaptation and environment. Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, U.K., 1997.
14. Silanikove N.: Effects of heat stress on the welfare of extensively managed domestic ruminants. Livestock Prod Sci, 2000, 67, 1-18.
15. Singh M., Rai A.K., More T., Dhaliwal J.S.: Note on comparative physiological response of sheep and goats to high ambient temperature. Indian J Anim Sci 1980, 50, 202