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Bojana Popovic, Dejana Popovic, Djuro Macut, Ivana Bozic Antic, Tatjana Isailovic, Sanja Ognjanovic, Tamara Bogavac, Valentina Elezovic Kovacevic, Dusan Ilic, Mirjana Petrovic and Svetozar Damjanovic

List of abbreviations CPET, cardiopulmonary exercise test on a treadmill (CPET) VO 2 , oxygen consumption VO2max, maximal oxygen consumption B, baseline S, start of the test MAX, point of maximal effort R, the 3rd minute of recovery RIA, radioimmuno assay IRMA, immunoradiometric assay SHBG, sex hormone binding globulin FAI, free-androgen index HPA axis, hipothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. References 1. Mastorakos G, Pavlatou M, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Chrousos GP. Exercise and the Stress System. Hormones (Athens

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Robert Nowak and Dorota Kostrzewa-Nowak

2006; 24(7): 665–74. 10.1080/02640410500482529 Bangsbo J Mohr M Krustrup P Physical and metabolic demands of training and match-play in the elite football player J Sports Sci 2006 24 7 665 – 74 2 Hoff J. Training and testing physical capacities for elite football players. J Sports Sci 2005; 23(6): 573–82. 10.1080/02640410400021252 Hoff J Training and testing physical capacities for elite football players J Sports Sci 2005 23 6 573 – 82 3 Popadic Gacesa JZ, Barak O, Grujic NG. Maximal anaerobic power test in athletes of different sport

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Dorota Kostrzewa-Nowak, Rafał Buryta and Robert Nowak

as inflammation markers after the progressive test on mechanical treadmill until exhaustion among soccer players at the beginning of the preparatory phase to spring and autumn competition round. Centre for Human Structural and Functional Research, Faculty of Physical Education and Health Promotion, University of Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland was established to perform sport research in order to improve the routine training practice on scientific bases. We closely cooperate with a top league soccer club, namely Pogoń Szczecin S.A. From this point of view, recruiting

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Dorota Kostrzewa-Nowak, Rafał Buryta and Robert Nowak

of biological adaption of the immune system to physical effort among professional karate athletes, we studied the CD3 + cell (T lymphocyte) subsets’ distribution in peripheral blood of elite athletes. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of training loads used at the preparation phase to start-up period and maximal effort (100% VO 2 max) achieved during the progressive efficiency test on the mechanical treadmill until exhaustion on CD3 + cell subsets’ distribution. Additionally, selected cytokines’ profile was determined to identify the immunological

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Pavel Broz, Daniel Rajdl, Jaroslav Novak, Milan Hromadka, Jaroslav Racek, Ladislav Trefil and Vaclav Zeman

JPL. Highsensitivity troponin after running-a systematic review. Neth J Med 2014; 72: 5-9. 18. Lippi G, Plebani M. High-sensitive troponin testing and the ‘runner’s syndrome’. J Emerg Med 2011; 41: 85-7. 19. Michieisen ECHJ, Wodzig WKWH, Van Dieijen-Visser MP. Cardiac troponin T release after prolonged strenuous exercise. Sports Medicine 2008; 38: 425-35. 20. Scherr J, Braun S, Schuster T, Hartmann C, Moehlen - kamp S, Wolfarth B, Pressler A, Halle M. 72-h kinetics of high-sensitive troponin T and inflammatory markers

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Hale Göksever Çelik, Engin Çelik and Ibrahim Polat

Summary

The aim of this study was to evaluate fertility hormone levels in adolescent girls and ten years older women with menstrual irregularities and with or without polycystic ovaries on ultrasound examination. The study population consisted of 276 patients aged 12-18 years and 469 patients aged 22-28 years who had menstrual irregularities with or without polycystic ovaries on ultrasound examination. All subjects underwent a comprehensive medical assessment including documentation of the detailed history, physical and gynecological examination, measurement of the essential laboratory variables, and measurement of the fertility hormone levels. Within 745 patients (mean age: 21.4±4.8), 276 patients were aged 12-18 years (group 1) and 469 patients were aged 22-28 years (group 2). Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) (237.7 (22.6-721.5) vs. 162.5 (2.4- 660.7) respectively; p<0.001) was significantly higher in group 1 than group 2. There were 74 subjects (26.8%) with LH/FSH ratio > 2 in group 1 and 74 subjects (15.8%) with LH/FSH ratio > 2 in group 2 (p<0.001). Biochemical hyperandrogenism is much more valuable in adolescents than in young adult women for the diagnosis of PCOS. Biochemical hyperandrogenism should be tested in adolescents with menstrual irregularities.

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Manole Cojocaru, Inimioara Cojocaru, Isabela Silosi and Camelia Vrabie

Kidney Damage in Autoimmune Diseases

Renal involvement in autoimmunity has many facets. Glomerular, tubular and vascular structures are targeted and damaged as a consequence of autoimmune processes. Immunologically mediated kidney diseases represent the third most common cause of end-stage renal failure (after diabetic and hypertensive nephropathies). Appropriate evalution of patients with immune-mediated kidney diseases requires a meticulous history and physical examination, with particular attention to the urinalysis, tests of renal function and often renal biopsy. The thorough clinician should personally review microscopic urinalysis in any case in which there is a reasonable index of suspicion of immune-mediated renal disease. In this article we propose to highlight recent developments, with particular reference to renal autoimmunity. Systemic lupus erythe-matosus affects many parts of the body: primarily the skin and joints, but also the kidneys. Goodpasture's syndrome involves an autoantibody that specifically targets the kidneys and the lungs. IgA nephropathy is a form of glomerular disease that results when immunoglobulin A (IgA) forms deposits in the glomeruli, where it creates inflammation. Future research could look for how the disease occurs, and how to easily test for its presence so that early treatment could be started.

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Muhammed Emin Keles, Afshin Samadi, Selen Yilmaz Isikhan, Yusuf Ziya Sener, Ali Sezgin, Emine Keles, Incilay Lay and Uğur Canpolat

.19 ng/mL) than in healthy subjects (13.82 ± 1.72 ng/mL). Although this difference was not statistically significant, there are only a few studies which have reported C-triol levels in CAD patients, thus the this data may be useful. Future studies may have more insight into the etiopathogenesis of C-triol and coronary artery disease. Both 7-KC and C-triol levels were measured lower after the effort test than before the test. Although this reduction was not statistically significant, we believe that oxysterol levels may be positively influenced by physical exersion

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Danica Popović and Mirko Popović

differences in biochemical parameters of bone remodeling. J. Clin Pathol 1996; 49: 284-90. Fraser CG. Biological variation in clinical chemistry - an update: collated data. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1988; 116: 916, 1992. Stansbie D, Bedley JP. Biochemical consequences of exercise. JIFCC. 1991; 3: 87-94. Ronkainen H. Depressed follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin responses to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and metoclopramide test

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Irina Juhas, Branko Skof, Dejana Popović, Milan Matić and Nenad Janković

Introduction Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis, ischemic heart disease and stroke ( 1 , 2 ). According to the American Heart Association, 54% of adult Europeans aged > 25 suffer from increased cholesterol levels higher than 5.17 mmol/L ( 3 ). Decreasing of Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) levels over a lifetime for 1 mmol/L is associated with a 55 % lower risk for cardiovascular diseases ( 4 ). Among different forms of physical activity, the authors have highlighted the importance of aerobic exercise