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Gert Pickel and Cemal Öztürk

and current living conditions and may turn out to be terrorists, he tried to produce (or to strengthen) realistic threats among the Hungarian public ( Kokot 2015 ). A realistic threat perception is in place when the in-groups consider the very existence of the out-groups as a danger for their physical and material well-being (Stephan and Stephan 1996 ). H6: Individuals who perceive migrants as a threat to their physical and material well-being are more likely to support a Muslim ban . Much of the anti-Muslim rhetoric we described earlier aims to encourage

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Jiří Gazda

opinions within the Czech Republic. Within the Czech media, the “Russian question” or the attitude toward Russia, its current policy, and its past impact on the development of Czech society is one of the most obvious indicators and a “litmus test” of the views of any given author and the movements that they represent. In this respect, there is an obvious long-term and deepening division of Czech online media that are divided into three groups: openly pro-Russian (and at the same time anti-American and anti-Islamic), basically neutral (but often described as pro

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Ľubomír Zvada

case study and its purport is to use a theoretical framework so that other cases may be tested accordingly ( Lijphart 1971 , 691). Moreover, applying Robert Yin separating approach, this paper represents a descriptive case study (Yin 2003). Within Robert Stake’s typology of qualitative case studies, it may be perceived as an intrinsic study ( Stake 1995 , 3-4). In my analysis, I focus on the most powerful political actors in representative democracy – political parties. The main objects of my analysis do not include all political parties that succeeded in

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Tomasz Kamusella

litmus test for ascertaining whether a given (national) speech community belongs or used to belong to the Western Christian community of Catholics and Protestants. However, exceptions do occur as in the case of the Orthodox nation of Romanians, who switched from Cyrillic to the Latin script for writing their Romance(-Slavic) language of Romanian in the mid-1860s. The Moldovans followed suit in 1989, that is, two years before the break up of the Soviet Union, while the Moldovan language continues to be written in Cyrillic in Moldova’s breakaway territory of