, as well as physiological screening. Undergraduate studies (Bachelor of Military Science) last 3 years and include a combination of academic and vocational studies. Part of their training is, naturally, very physical and students need to complete certain fitness tests during their studies in order to graduate.
Achievement goal orientations were assessed using a modified questionnaire ( Niemivirta 2002 ; also refer Tuominen-Soini et al. 2012 ; Pulkka and Niemivirta 2013 ; Tapola et al. 2014 , for studies that have used the original
Ricardo G. Lugo, Stefan Sütterlin, Benjamin J. Knox, Øyvind Jøsok, Kirsi Helkala and Natalie Marie Lande
). Typical situations in action and training are scenarios marked by time pressure, high complexity, simultaneous and causally unrelated or related events in both the cyber domain and the physical domain, as well as incomplete or potentially deceptive information on which quick decisions and actions have to be based. However, often acting is considered to be not optimal, even where time pressure persists. Acting counterintuitively in relation to time and initiating reflective problem solving – even where more intuitive and spontaneous decision tendencies are strong
Adler, AB, Thomas, JL & Castro, CA 2005, "Measuring Up: Comparing Self-Reports With Unit Records for Assessing Soldier Performance", Military Psychology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 3-24.
Aiken, LS & West, SG 1991, Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Bandura, A 1977, Social learning theory, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Bandura, A 1986, Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood
Helga Myrseth, Olav Kjellevold Olsen, Einar Kristian Borud and Leif Åge Strand
, and often). Cronbach’s alpha for the RULS-8 in this study was 0.69.
The Hopkins Symptom Checklist – 5 (SCL-5; Tambs and Moum 1993 ) is a short form of the Hopkins Check List (SCL-25; Hesbacher et al. 1980 ) used for measuring symptoms of depression and anxiety, and it has demonstrated high correlations ( r = 0.92) with the original version ( Tambs and Moum 1993 ). Cronbach’s alpha for the SCL-5 in the current study was 0.74, and it was 0.59 and 0.69 for the subscales anxiety and depression, respectively.
The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – Alcohol
between resources and tasks, resulting in psychological distress among coworkers. Such a consequence at the individual level can result in stress and sick leave, which, in turn, may lead to deficient competency and a further lack of resources. The effects of OA can also lead to long work days, increased workloads, shorter breaks and a growing culture and norm of individuals feeling that they have, quite simply, too much to do ( Theorell 2002 ). One can say that in the long term, a major consequence of resource cuts is physical and psychological damage in organizational
Helga Myrseth, Sigurd William Hystad, Reidar Säfvenbom and Olav Kjellevold Olsen
to investigate whether the cadets’ levels of self-efficacy impact the levels of specific military skills. We hypothesized that levels of self-efficacy will predict levels of military skills over the three years.
Sample and procedure
The data for this study were collected as part of the Norwegian Military Academy Study, 2007–2011. Cadets attending the three different military academies in Norway (the Naval Academy, the Air Force Academy, and the Army Academy) were selected on both physical and psychological parameters, with the aim of the
The subject of unification is as vibrant as national movement even after 58 years of a fractured verdict. More than to achieve a physical conjugation it was an attempt for cultural fusion. The aspiration for linguistic unification was a part of the national discourse. The movement, which began with mystic originations, later on turned out to become communal. Political changes during 1799 A.D. and 1857 A.D. changed the fortunes of Mysore state and ultimately led to its disintegration and became the reason for this movement. The concept of unification is akin to the spirit of nationalism, against the background of colonial regime assigning parts of land to different administrative units without taking into consideration the historical or cultural aspects of that place. Kannadigas marooned in multi lingual states experient an orphaned situation got aroused with the turn of nineteenth century. The problem precipitated by the company was diluted by British when they introduced English education. Though the positive aspect like emergence of middle class is pragmatic, rise of communalism on the other hand is not idealistic.
This research paper is designed to examine the polarization of castes during unification movement of Mysore State (Presently called as State of Karnataka, since 1973, which was termed Mysore when integrated) which came into being in 1956 A.D. Most of the previous studies concentrate on two aspects viz ideological discourse and organizational strategies adopted to gain Unification. The course of the unifi cation movement and role of Congress party dominates such studies while some of them concentrate on the leaders of the movement. Other studies are ethnographical in nature. ‘Community Dominance and Political Modernisation: The Lingayats’ written by Shankaragouda Hanamantagouda Patil is a classic example. Mention may be made here of an recent attempt by Harish Ramaswamy in his ‘Karnataka Government and Politics’ which has covered almost all aspects of emergence of Karnataka as a state but communal politics during unification movement has found no place. ‘Rethinking State Politics in India: Regions within Regions’ is an edited book by Ashutosh Kumar which has articles on ‘Castes and Politics of Marginality’ where a reference is made to caste associations and identity politics of Lingayats, but the area of study is neighboring Maharashtra and not Karnataka. Though it contains two articles on Karnataka its subject matter doesn’t pertain to this topic. One more important effort is by ‘Imagining Unimaginable Communities: Political and Social Discourse in Modern Karnataka’ where the author Raghavendra Rao thinks Karnataka and India as two unimaginable communities and discuss primarily the founding moments of negotiation between the discourses of Indian nationalism and Kannada linguistic nationalism. It is more an intellectual history and throws light on nationalism in a colonial context.
Mostly studies concentrate on either the course or the leaders of the movement. Invariably congress as an organization finds place in all studies. But the blemish of such studies is a lesser concentration on activities of major socio cultural groups. The role of socio cultural groups assumes importance because of the milieu at the beginning of 20th century which annunciated a wave of social changes in the state. It is a known fact that the movement for linguistic state was successful in bringing a political integration of five separate sub regions but failed to unite people culturally. This concept of unification which is akin to the spirit of nationalism got expressed at the regional level in the sense of respect for once own culture, language and people. In case of Karnataka this expression had political overtones too which is expressed by some who fought for it (Srinivas & Narayan, 1946 ). Most of the early leaders of unification movement (and for that matter even movement for independence too can be cited here) belonged to one particular caste, and with passing of time has led to the notion of domination of that caste over the movement. This paper tries to give justice in a limited way by giving legitimate and adequate recognition for those castes which deserves it and do away with misconceptions. Two concepts political modernization and social mobility are used. The later derives its existence from the former in this case. The data used here is primarily gained from news papers and secondary sources like books and interviews given by participants. No hypothesis is tested nor any theory is developed in this attempt but historical materials are examined in the light of modernity. The key problem discussed here is emergence of communal politics and the role of social groups in unification. Biases of regionalism, caste and class have been overcome by rational thinking.
and current living conditions and may turn out to be terrorists, he tried to produce (or to strengthen) realistic threats among the Hungarian public ( Kokot 2015 ). A realistic threat perception is in place when the in-groups consider the very existence of the out-groups as a danger for their physical and material well-being (Stephan and Stephan 1996 ).
H6: Individuals who perceive migrants as a threat to their physical and material well-being are more likely to support a Muslim ban .
Much of the anti-Muslim rhetoric we described earlier aims to encourage
The French Consulate in Salonica in the 19th Century
Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Empire, although ephemeral, durably marked the societies and spaces concerned. See other contributions in this volume, especially those by Rüdiger von Krosigk and by Stefan Couperus et al. But this phenomenon could also be found, later in the century, with the new era of colonization. In this modernizing impetus, the consular network occupied a specific place. It tested the ability of France to project and impose its model not just beyond its metropolitan borders, but also outside the spaces it directly controlled. On this subject, see
–87; Sandro Rinauro: »La conoscenza del territorio nazionale«, in: Francesco Cassata / Claudio Pogliano (ed.): Storia ďItalia. Annali, vol. 26: Scienze e cultura delľItalia unita, Torino 2011, p. 497–523.
The other great issue that animated political debate and practice during the Risorgimento, that is, the question of where the capital should be located, was also linked to the physical and political geography of the country. Once again, it was Napoleon who emphasized the problem of identifying the capital of the future united Italy which, although its regions had »much