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Omar Mohamed, Ahmed Mansour, Sameh S. Tahoun, Ashraf M. T. Elewa and Muhammad Ali Mekkey


The current study presents a fully qualitative palynological investigation carried out on the Raha Formation encountered from three wells in the Bakr Oil Field of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. Around 30 species of pteridophytic spores, 26 species of angiosperm pollen, 24 species of gymnosperm pollen and 27 species of dinoflagellate cysts have been recorded. However, achritarchs, microforaminiferal test linings and freshwater algae are impoverished and sparsely documented throughout the Raha Formation. Two palynozones have been identified based on some stratigraphically significant pollen and spores, arranged from youngest to oldest: (1) Palynozone I (Classopollis brasiliensis–Tricolpites sagax Assemblage Zone) of late Cenomanian age; (2) Palynozone II (Afropollis jardinus–Crybelosporites pannuceus Assemblage Zone) of early-middle Cenomanian age. The distribution and ecological affiliation of specific palynomorph species, as well as various palynofacies parameters, are interpreted. A shallow marine environment from supratidal to distal inner neritic under proximal suboxic–anoxic to dysoxic–anoxic shelf conditions is reconstructed. Palaeobiogeographically, the absence of elaters from the recovered taxa is interpreted in terms of minor floral variation. This may be attributed to climatic and/or an environment-controlled niche establishment, which possibly was shaped by the existence of a physical barrier hindering the distribution of such type of elaterate parent plants.

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Anna V. Mikhailenko, Olesya V. Nazarenko, Dmitry A. Ruban and Pavel P. Zayats

References Boley, B.B., Nickerson, N.P. & Bosak, K., 2011. Measuring Geotourism: Developing and Testing the Geotraveler Tendency Scale (GTS). Journal of Travel Research 50, 567–578. Bradbury, J., 2014. A keyed classification of natural geodiversity for land management and nature conservation purposes. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 125, 329–349. Brilha, J., 2016. Inventory and quantitative assessment of geosites and geodiversity sites: a review. Geoheritage 8, 119–134. Bruno, D.E., Crowley, B.E., Gutak, Ja.M., Moroni, A

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Aleksandra Dudkowska and Gabriela Gic-Grusza

. Summerschool-Workshop Coastal Zone. CEM, IBW PAN . Gdansk, Poland, 9–30. PN-EN ISO 14688-1:2006/A1:2014-02E Geotechnical investigation and testing – Identification and classification of soil – Part 1: Identification and description – Amendment 1 (ISO 14688-1:2002/Amd 1:2013), Warsaw, Poland, 12 pp. Pruszak, Z., Szmytkiewicz, P., Ostrowski, R., Skaja, M. & Szmytkiewicz, M., 2008. Shallow-water wave energy dissipation in a multi-bar coastal zone. Oceanologia 50, 43–58. Pruszak, Z. & Zeidler, R.B., 1995. Sediment transport in various time scale

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Anna Sieczka, Filip Bujakowski and Eugeniusz Koda

References Aljazzar, T. & Al-Qinna, M., 2016. Assessment of nitrate transport parameters using the advection-diffusion cell. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 23, 23145–23157. Almasri, M.N. & Kaluarachchi, J.J., 2007. Modeling nitrate contamination of groundwater in agricultural watersheds. Journal of Hydrology 343, 211–229. ASTM D5084-00, 2001. Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter . ASTM International, West Conshohocken. Batu, V

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Klaudio Peqini, Bejo Duka, Ramon Egli and Barbara Leichter

:// Backus, G., Constable, C. and Parker, R., 1996. Foundations of Geomagnetism. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Bloxham, J., and Gubbins, D., 1986. Geomagnetic fiels analysis IV - Testing the frozen flux hypothesis. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 84, 139-152. Chiappini, M., Meloni, A., Boschi, E., Faggioni, O., Beverini, N., Carmisciano, C., Marson, I., 2000. Shaded relief magnetic anomaly map of Italy and surrounding marine areas. Annals of Geophysics

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Dominik Pawłowski, Daniel Okupny, Wojciech Włodarski and Tomasz Zieliński

., Comunian, A. & Renard, P., 2012. Comparison of three geostatistical methods for hydrofacies simulation: a test on alluvial sediments. Hydrogeology Journal 20, 299-311. Cohen, K.M., 2005. 3D Geostatistical interpolation and geological interpretation of palaeo-groundwater rise in the Holocene coastal prism in the Netherlands. In: Giosan, L. & Bhattacharya, J.P. (Eds), River deltas - Concepts, models, and examples. SEPM Special Publication, 83, 341-364. Dembek, W. & Oświt, J., 1992. Rozpoznawanie warunków hydrologicznego zasilania siedlisk

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Daniel Okupny, Seweryn Rzepecki, Ryszard Krzysztof Borówka, Jacek Forysiak, Juliusz Twardy, Anna Fortuniak and Julita Tomkowiak

.M., Krześlak, I. & Świtoniak, M., 2014. The record of hydroclimatic changes in the sediments of kettle-hole in a Young glacial landscape (north-central Poland). Quaternary International 328-329, 264-276. Krygowski, B., 1961. Physical geography of the Great Poland Lowland. P. I. Geomorphology. Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauki, Poznań, 1-203. Landner, L. & Reuther, R., 2004. Metals in Society and in the Environment. A Critical Review of Current Knowledge on Fluxes, Speciation, Bioavailability and Risk for Adverse Effects of Cooper

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Leili Saarse

., Muscheler, R., Evans, M.N., Showers, W., Hoffmann, S., Lotti-Bond, R., Hajdas, I. & Bonani, G., 2001. Persistent solar influence on North Atlantic climate during the Holocene. Science 278, 1257-1266. Chambers, F.M. & Blackford, J.J., 2001. Mid- and Late-Holocene climate changes: a test of periodicity and solar forcing in proxy-climate data from blanket peat bogs. Journal of Quaternary Science 16, 4, 329-389. Charman, D.J., Barber, K.E., Blaauw, M., Langdon, P.G., Mauquoy, D., Daley, T.J., Hughes, P.D.M. & Karofeld, E., 2009. Climate drivers

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Christoph Daxer, Jasper Moernaut, Timothy Taylor, Jean Nicolas Haas and Michael Strasser

. Schmidt, & E. Schultze (Eds.), Contributions to the paleolimnology of the Trumer Lakes (Salzburg) and the lakes Mondsee, Attersee and Traunsee (Upper Austria) (pp. 136-148). Limnologisches Institut der Osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mondsee. Blum, P., 1997. Physical properties handbook, ODP Tech Note 26. doi: 10.2973/ Breitwieser, R., 2010. Der „Mondsee-Tsunami“ - Fakt oder Mediengag? NAU - Nachrichtenblatt Arbeitskreis Unterwasserarchaologie, 16, 85-91. Burgschwaiger, E. and Schmid, C., 2001

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Barbara Woronko, Joanna Rychel, Mirosław T. Karasiewicz, Andrzej Ber, Tomasz Krzywicki, Leszek Marks and Katarzyna Pochocka-Szwarc

1, 33-42. Boyle, J.F., 2001. Inorganic geochemical methods in palaeolimnology. [In:] W.M. Last & J.P. Smol (Eds): Tracking environmental change using lake sediments. Physical and Geochemical Methods (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht) 2, 83-141. Briant, R.M., Coope, G.R., Preece, R.C., Keen, D.H., Boreham, S., Griffith, H.I., Seddon, M.B. & Gibbard, P.L., 2004. Fluvial system response to Late Devensian (Weichselian) aridity, Baston, Lincolnshire, England. Journal of Quaternary Science 19, 479-495. Brud, S