school standardized tests ( Case and Paxson, 2008 ), and lower earnings ( Black et al., 2007 ).
From an intrahousehold bargaining perspective, these findings suggest a rejection of the unitary model of the household, whereby a household is assumed to act as a single economic unit, in favor of collective models of intrahousehold allocation (see Vermeulen  for a survey of the collective approach and Vermeulen  for a comparative analysis of the empirical validity of the two competing approaches). In households where mothers are absent due to labor
Alan Turing – independently from each other – discovered that any process of formal reasoning – such as problems in economics and management described above – can be simulated by digital machines. In other words, the difference between a computer and a brain is one in degree, not in principle. Turing (1950) later argued that there might be a time when humans would no longer be able to distinguish between interacting with another human or a digital machine, passing the so-called “Turing test”. Moreover, indeed, in light of recent experiences by leading AI firms
different methodological settings that have been used in the literature so far, for example, with respect to field classifications, measures of educational standards, or the list of covariates. For example, in the analysis of Green and McIntosh (2007) , who make a quite detailed distinction between 12 educational fields, degrees in Physical sciences and in Computing are estimated to lower the overeducation probability significantly relative to the reference category Business and Management Studies. The insignificance of the field Math explain the authors by the fact that
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