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Irene Villafañe, Colin Keogh, Thomas P. Curran and Emmanuel G. Reynaud


As the production of single use plastic packaging materials is increasing rapidly, the resultant generation of waste material is quickly becoming one of the world’s major environmental issues. These plastic materials are highly stable, with excellent material properties which can allow them to be used beyond their intended single use. To effectively utilize these recovered plastic materials, an understanding of their mechanical properties is required. The aim of this study was to assess the mechanical properties of recovered plastic bottles to prove the feasibility of utilisation for additional uses in non-shredding based recycling systems with lower energy requirements. This system would conserve the physical integrity of the bottles, using them as a raw material for new direct reuse and repurposing applications. Tensile tests were conducted on samples cut from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles considering different sets of variables: cutting method, orientation of the samples and degradation method. The results clearly demonstrate the superior strength characteristics, and minimal effect of degradation, showing the potential for a whole new field of applications where these recovered materials could be used. However, successful adoption of this new concept relies on structural changes to the operations of recycling and manufacturing companies as well as legislators, regulators and the general public.

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Jan Vopravil, Vilém Podrázský, Tomáš Khel, Ondřej Holubík and Stanislav Vacek

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Aamna Rizvi, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal and Sehrish Khursheed

vitro test to study the effects of surfactants in plant material. Chemosphere, 36(4-5), 715-720. DOI: 10.1016/S0045-6535(97)10113-8. Cserháti, T., Forgács, E. & Oros Gy. (2002). Biological activity and environmental impact anionic surfactants. Environ. Int., 28(5), 337-348. DOI: 10.1016/S0160-4120(02)00032-6. Dale, M.P. & Causton D.R. (1992). The ecophysiology of Veronica chamaedrys, Veronica montana and Veronica officinalis II. The interaction of irradiance and water regime. J. Ecol., 80, 493-504. DOI: 10

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Katarzyna Janda and Agata Markowska-Szczupak

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Dadi Feyisa, Endalkachew Kissi and Zerihun Kebebew

properties in smallholder farmers of central highland Ethiopia. Ekológia (Bratislava) , 29, 1–14. DOI: 10.4149/ekol_2010_01_1. Duguma, L.A. & Hager H. (2011). Farmers’ assessment of the social and ecological values of land uses in central highland Ethiopia. Environ. Manag. , 47, 969–982. DOI: 10.1007/s00267-011-9657-9. Fageria, N.K. (2009). The use of nutrients in crop plants . New York: CRC Press. Frank, B. (1990). Interpreting soil test results: What do all the numbers mean ? Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing. Getachew, F., Abdulkadir, A., Lemenih

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Vladimír Langraf, Kornélia Petrovičová, Stanislav David, Janka Nozdrovická, František Petrovič and Janka Schlarmannová

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Sulaiman Naif Ami, Shireen Ghaeib and Ali Shingaly

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Olexander Zhukov, Olga Kunah, Yulia Dubinina and Victoria Novikova

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Dávid Tomko-Králo, Juraj Hreško and Imrich Jakab

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Gyula Dörgő and János Abonyi

.404 [25] Deb, K.; Agrawal, S.; Pratap, A.; Meyarivan, T.: A fast elitist non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm for multi-objective optimization: NSGA-II, in Parallel problem solving from nature PPSN (Eds.: Schoenauer VI, M.: Deb, K.; Rudolph, G.; Yao, X.; Lutton, E.; Merelo, J. J.; Schwefel, H.-P., Springer, Berlin, Germany) 2000 pp. 849–858 DOI: 10.1007/3-540-45356-3_83 [26] Deb, K.: Multi-objective genetic algorithms: problem difficulties and construction of test problems, Evolut. Comp., 1999 7 , 205–230 DOI: 10.17877/DE290R-5636 [27] Song, L.: NGPM