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Comparison of the Yield of Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes to the Top 100 United States Brand Styles

, M.K. Tang, R. Vandrey, S.S. Hecht, N.L. Benowitz, and E.C. Donny: Effect of Immediate vs Gradual Reduction in Nicotine Content of Cigarettes on Biomarkers of Smoke Exposure: A Randomized Clinical Trial; JAMA 320 (2018) 880–891. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2018.11473 29. Kamens, H.M., C.P. Silva, R.T. Nye, C.N. Miller, N. Singh, J. Sipko, N. Trushin, D. Sun, S.A. Branstetter, J.E. Muscat, J.P. Richie, and J. Foulds: Pharmacokinetic Profile of Spectrum Reduced Nicotine Cigarettes; Nicotine Tob. Res. (2019) ntz045. DOI: 10.1093/ntr/ntz045. [Epub ahead of print] 30

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Commentary: It Ain't Necessarily So

-361. 14. Tarka, S.M., R.B. Morrisey, J.L. Apgar, K.A. Hostetler, and CA. Shively: Chronić toxi-city/carcinogenicity studies of cocoa powder in rats; Food Chem. Toxicol. 29 (1991) 7-19. 15. British American Tobacco: The determination of theobromine added to cigarette tobacco and smoke; Internal R&D Report No. L470, 1974. 16. Simons, F.E.R, A.B. Becker, K.J. Simons, and CA. Gillespie: The bronchodilator effect and pharmaco-kinetics of theobromine in young patients with asthma; J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 76 (1985) 703

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Mini-Review: On the Transfer of Nicotine from Tobacco to the Smoker. A Brief Review of Ammonia and “pH” Factors

. Jacob III: Nicotine dependence and tolerance in man: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic investigations; in: Progress in brain research, Vol. 79, edited by A. Nordberg, K. Fuse, B. Holmstedt, and A. Sundwall, Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V., 1989, pp. 279-287. 63. Schievelbein, H.: Nicotine, resorption and fate; Pharmacol. Ther. 18 (1982) 233-248. 64. Slade, J.: Nicotine delivery devices; in: Nicotine addiction: principles and management, Vol. 4; edited by C.T. Orleans and J. Slade, Oxford University Press

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Biomarkers Derived from Nicotine and its Metabolites: A Review

. Med. 44 (2002) 503–509. 17. Seccareccia, F., P. Zuccaro, R. Pacifici, P. Meli, F. Pannozzo, K.M. Freeman, A. Santaquilani, S. Giam-paoli: Serum cotinine as a marker of environmental tobacco smoke exposure in epidemiological studies: The experience of the MATISS project; Eur. J. Epide-miol. 18 (2003) 487–492. 18. Palmer, K.J., M.M. Buckley, and D. Faulds: Transdermal nicotine: A review of its pharmacodyna-mic and pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic efficacy as an aid to smoking cessation. Drugs 44 (1992) 498

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Influence of Machine-Derived Smoke Yields on Biomarker of Exposure (BOE) Levels in Cigarette Smokers*

. Jacob III, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1999, pp 669-719. 37. Curvall, M., CE. Elwin, E. Kazemi-Vala, C. War-holm, and CR. Enzell: The Pharmacokinetics of Cotinine in Plasma and Saliva from Non-Smoking Healthy Volunteers; Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 38 (1990) 281-287. 38. Jarvis, M. J., P. Primatesta, B. Erens, C. Feyerabend, and A. Bryant: Measuring Nicotine Intake in Population Surveys: Comparability of Saliva Cotinine and Plasma Cotinine Estimates; Nicotine Tob. Res. 5 (2003) 349-355. 39. Michalke, B., B. Rossbach, T. Göen, A. Schäfer-henrich, and G

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The Addition of Cocoa, Glycerol, and Saccharose to the Tobacco of Cigarettes: Implications for Smoke Chemistry, In Vitro Cytotoxicity, Mutagenicity and Further Endpoints

650270002/2002, The contribution of cocoa additive to cigarette smoking addiction; RIVM, Bilthoven, Netherlands, 2003. 42. Simons, F. E. R, A. B. Becker, K. J. Simons, and CA. Gillespie: The bronchodilator effect and pharmaco-kinetics of theobromine in young patients with asthma; J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 76 (1985) 703-707. 43. IARC, International agency for Research on Cancer: IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Volume 51. Coffee, Tea, Mate, Methylxanthines and Methylglyoxal; IARC, Lyon

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A Critical Assessment of Recent Work on the Application of Gas/Particle Partitioning Theories to Cigarette Smoke

. 25 (1986)1181-1184. 99. Benowitz, N.L.: Pharmacokinetics and pharmaco-dynamics of nicotine; in: The pharmacology of nicotine, edited by M.J. Rand and K. Thurau, ICSU Symposium Series, Vol. 9, IRL Press Limited, McLean, VA, 1998,3-18.

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Assessing Smoking Behaviour and Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Definitions and Methods

Health Organization, Geneva, 2004. 46. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS): Characterization and Application of Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models in Risk Assessment. Harmonization Project Document No. 9; World Health Organization, Geneva, 2010. 47. Armitage, A.K., M. Dixon, B.E. Frost, D.C. Mariner, and N.M. Sinclair: The Effect of Tobacco Blend Additives on the Retention of Nicotine and Solanesol in the Human Respiratory Tract and on Subsequent Plasma Nicotine Concentrations During Cigarette

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Influence of Additives on Cigarette Related Health Risks

.M. Gordon: Particle-Gas Equilibria of Ammonia and Nicotine in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke; Aerosol Sci. Technol. 35 (2001) 874–886. 124. Benowitz, N.L.: Nicotine Pharmacology and Addiction; in : Nicotine Safety and Toxicity, edited by N.L. Benowitz, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 1998, pp. 3–16. 125. Benowitz, N.L., H. Porchet, and P. Jacob III: Nicotine Dependence and Tolerance in Man: Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Investigations; Prog. Brain Res. 79 (1989) 279–287. 126

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Optimal control problems for differential equations applied to tumor growth: state of the art

cytotoxic agents to increase the selectivity of therapy. Reference [ 46 ] models the proliferation cycle of leukemia. Eisen [ 14 ] also gives some introductory discussion of cell-cycle specific chemotherapy and compartmental models (distinguishing between proliferating and quiescent cells), but mostly in the context of pharmacokinetics and clearly the emphasis is more on modeling than on analysis. After that, a great effort was done to study the development and analysis of compartmental models which describe and analyze the actions of drugs on specific compartments from

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