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Anthony Singer, Eleni Markoutsa, Alya Limayem, Subhra Mohapatra and Shyam S. Mohapatra

Abstract

Biomedical Nanotechnology (BNT) has rapidly become a revolutionary force that is driving innovation in the medical field. BNT is a subclass of nanotechnology (NT), and often operates in cohort with other subclasses, such as mechanical or electrical NT for the development of diagnostic assays, therapeutic implants, nano-scale imaging systems, and medical machinery. BNT is generating solutions to many conventional challenges through the development of enhanced therapeutic delivery systems, diagnostic techniques, and theranostic therapies. Therapeutically, BNT has generated many novel nanocarriers (NCs) that each express specifically designed physiochemical properties that optimize their desired pharmacokinetic profile. NCs are also being integrated into nanoscale platforms that further enhance their delivery by controlling and prolonging their release profile. Nano-platforms are also proving to be highly efficient in tissue regeneration when combined with the appropriate growth factors. Regarding diagnostics, NCs are being designed to perform targeted delivery of luminescent tags and contrast agents that enhance the NC -aided imaging capabilities and resulting diagnostic accuracy of the presence of diseased cells. This technology has also been advancing the ability for surgeons to practice true precision surgical techniques. Incorporating therapeutic and diagnostic NC-components within a single NC can facilitate both functions, referred to as theranostics, which facilitates real-time in vivo tracking and observation of drug release events via enhanced imaging. Additionally, stimuli-responsive theranostic NCs are quickly developing as vectors for tumor ablation therapies by providing a model that facilitates the location of cancer cells for the application of an external stimulus. Overall, BNT is an interdisciplinary approach towards health care, and has the potential to significantly improve the quality of life for humanity by significantly decreasing the treatment burden for patients, and by providing non-invasive therapeutics that confer enhanced therapeutic efficiency and safety

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L Müller and W Röper

-361. 14. Tarka, S.M., R.B. Morrisey, J.L. Apgar, K.A. Hostetler, and CA. Shively: Chronić toxi-city/carcinogenicity studies of cocoa powder in rats; Food Chem. Toxicol. 29 (1991) 7-19. 15. British American Tobacco: The determination of theobromine added to cigarette tobacco and smoke; Internal R&D Report No. L470, 1974. 16. Simons, F.E.R, A.B. Becker, K.J. Simons, and CA. Gillespie: The bronchodilator effect and pharmaco-kinetics of theobromine in young patients with asthma; J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 76 (1985) 703

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Annalisa Panico, Gelsy Arianna Lupoli, Roberta Lupoli, Fiammetta Romano, Livia Barba and Giovanni Lupoli

, Williams T, Luo H, Ke H, Rehmann H, Taussig R, Brown AL, Kim MK, Beaven MA, Burgin AB, Manganiello V, Chung JH. Resveratrol ameliorates aging-related metabolic phenotypes by inhibiting Camp phosphodiesterases. Cell. 2012; 3;148:421-33. 6. Das S, Lin HS, Ho PC, Ng KY. The impact of aqueous solubility and dose on the pharmacokinetic profiles of resveratrol. Pharm Res. 2008; 25:2593-600. 7. Subramanian L, Youssef S, Bhattacharya S, Kenealey J, Polans AS, van Ginkel PR. Resveratrol: challenges in translation to the clinic-- a critical

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Yusuf Mulazim, Cevdet Berber, Hakkı Erdogan, Melike Hacer Ozkan and Banu Kesanli

pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model of tolerance to morphine analgesia during infusion in rats. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm 1995; 23: 531-549.

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Abed Al Nasser Assi and Ali Abu Arra

: comparison of 100- and 80-kVp protocols. Invest Radiol. 2008;43(12):871-876. [15] Bae KT. Peak contrast enhancement in CT and MR angiography: when does it occur and why? Pharmacokinetic study in a porcine model. Radiology. 2003;227(3):809-816. [16] Han JK, Kim AY, Lee KY, et al.. Factors influencing vascular and hepatic enhancement at CT: experimental study on injection protocol using a canine model. J Comput Assist Tomogr, 2000;24(3):400-406. [17] Schoellnast H, Deutschmann HA, Berghold A, et al. MDCT angiography of the

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M Dixon, K Lambing and JI Seeman

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AR Tricker

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Gerhard Scherer

. Jacob III, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1999, pp 669-719. 37. Curvall, M., CE. Elwin, E. Kazemi-Vala, C. War-holm, and CR. Enzell: The Pharmacokinetics of Cotinine in Plasma and Saliva from Non-Smoking Healthy Volunteers; Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 38 (1990) 281-287. 38. Jarvis, M. J., P. Primatesta, B. Erens, C. Feyerabend, and A. Bryant: Measuring Nicotine Intake in Population Surveys: Comparability of Saliva Cotinine and Plasma Cotinine Estimates; Nicotine Tob. Res. 5 (2003) 349-355. 39. Michalke, B., B. Rossbach, T. Göen, A. Schäfer-henrich, and G

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E Roemer, S Wittke, E TrellesSticken, JJ Piade, T Bonk and MK Schorp

650270002/2002, The contribution of cocoa additive to cigarette smoking addiction; RIVM, Bilthoven, Netherlands, 2003. 42. Simons, F. E. R, A. B. Becker, K. J. Simons, and CA. Gillespie: The bronchodilator effect and pharmaco-kinetics of theobromine in young patients with asthma; J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 76 (1985) 703-707. 43. IARC, International agency for Research on Cancer: IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Volume 51. Coffee, Tea, Mate, Methylxanthines and Methylglyoxal; IARC, Lyon

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JH Lauterbach

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