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Steroid pharmacokinetics: An “overlooked” issue of steroid metabolism in acute and chronic disease

References 1. Sefar S, Degoricija V. About drug dialyzability. Acta Clin Croat 2003;42:257-26. 2. Al-Habet SM, Rogers HJ. Methylprednisolone pharmacokinetics after intravenous and oral administration. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1989;27:285-90. 3. Venkatesh B, Myburgh J, Finfer S, Webb SA, Cohen J, Bellomo R, et al. The ADRENAL study protocol: Adjunctive corticosteroid treatment in critically ill patients with septic shock. Crit Care Resusc 2013;15:83-8. 4. Frey BM, Frey FJ. Clinical pharmacokinetics of

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Direct Oral Anticoagulant Drugs in Dental Clinical Practice

Abstract

The direct oral anticoagulant drugs (DOAC) are generally safe and effective in several clinical settings including acute venous thromboembolic disease, prophylaxis in the postoperative setting, prevention of thromboembolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, and in the management of acute coronary syndrome. The relatively short half-life, rapid onset of action, and predictable pharmacokinetics should simplify periprocedural use of the DOAC. The aim of this work is to propose and summarize periprocedural management of patients treated with the DOAC in dental practice and to inform about the principal specifications of this treatment.

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Renal Ontogeny of P-Glycoprotein/MDR1 in Rat

Renal Ontogeny of P-Glycoprotein/MDR1 in Rat

BACKGROUND: P-glycoprotein (Pgp/MDR1) is an ATP-dependent, integral plasma-membrane efflux pump that is constitutively expressed on adult apical brush-border epithelium of renal proximal tubules. This Pgp/MDR1 tissue distribution and localization affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of Pgp/MDR1 substrates. The ontogeny of rat Pgp/MDR1 is still doubtful, and such knowledge may be helpful in understanding age-related pharmacokinetics. The purpose of this study was to determine, whether Pgp/MDR1 expression is altered during development.

METHODS: Postnatal expression of Pgp was determined using immunohistochemical method. Tissue from Wistar rat were isolated on the 1st day (D1), 7th day (D7), 14th day (D14), 21st day of life (D21) and from adult animals (60 days old; Ad).

RESULTS: Our ontogeny study illustrated that expression of Pgp was relatively constant from birth to adulthood.

CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of the ontogeny of transport proteins involved in distribution and elimination of drugs is important for adequate interpretation of the results of toxicity studies in juvenile animals.

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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance as a Diagnostic Tool in Breast Cancer

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance as a Diagnostic Tool in Breast Cancer

The early detection and treatment of breast cancer is of direct benefit to patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising modality for detection, diagnosis, and staging of breast cancer. MRI enables two methods: the diffusion-weighted MRI (DW MRI) and the dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE MRI). DW MRI reflects the diffusion of water molecules in the extracellular fluid space and allows the estimation of cellularity and tissue structure. The value of the diffusion of water in tissue is called the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). ADC values in malignant lesions are smaller than in benign tissue. DCE MRI yields appropriate pharmacokinetic data of physiological parameters that relate to tissue perfusion, microvascular vessel wall permeability and extracellular volume fraction. Gadolinium based contrast agent is usually used in breast DCE MRI diagnostics. Changes in the post-contrast signal intensity help to distinguish lesions according to characteristically enhanced accumulation of contrast agent. Malignant lesions are characterized by a faster and stronger signal enhancement than benign lesions which relate to their neoangiogenesis. Over the last few years, there has been appreciable interest in the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for the non-invasive analysis of breast tisue metabolites. One of the spectroscopic hallmarks of the neoplastic process appears to be the presence of total choline signal in the in vivo spectrum. Despite the fact that MRI and MRS achieve excellent results, they are still not so frequently used in comparison to mammography and breast ultrasound.

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Treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia with high-dose colistin under continuous veno-venous hemofiltration

the 1970s because of significant renal and neurological toxicity. [ 4 ] At present, COL is increasingly put forward as salvage or first-line treatment for severe MDR-GNB infections, particularly in the ICU. [ 5 ] COL is administered intravenously as the inactive prodrug colistimethate sodium (CMS) that is hydrolyzed to COL. From a pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) viewpoint, COL possesses rapid concentration-dependent bacterial killing against susceptible strains, but the ratio of the area under the concentration time curve of the unbound fraction to the

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Atomoxetine in the Treatment of the Most Common Comorbid Disorders of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Anxiety Disorders

-40. 19. Spencer TJ, Kratochvil CJ, Sangal RB, et al. Effects of atomoxetine on growth in children with attentiondeficit/ hyperactivity disorder following up to five years of treatment. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2007; 17(5): 689-700. 20. Sangal RB, Owens J, Allen AJ, et al. Effects of atomoxetine and methylphenidat on sleep in children with ADHD. Sleep. 2006; 29(12): 1573-85. 21. Witcher JW, Long A, Smith B, et al. Atomoxetine pharmacokinetics in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Child

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Quantification of Theophylline in Guinea Pig Plasma by LC-MS/MS Using Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography Stationary Phase: Method Development, Validation, and Application in Study

-6. 12) Al-Jenoobi FI, Ahad A, Mahrous GM, Raish M, Alam MA, Al-Mohizea AM. A simple HPLC-UV method for the quantification of theophylline in rabbit plasma and its pharmacokinetic application. J Chromatorgr Sci 2015, 53 (10):1765-70. 13) Nirogi RV, Kandikere VN, Shukla M, Mudigonda K, Ajjala DR. A simple and rapid HPLC/UV method for the simultaneous quantification of theophylline and etofylline in human plasma. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2007, 848 (2): 271-6. 14) Kamberi M, Hajime N, Kamberi P, Uemura N, Nakamura K, Nakano S. Simultaneous

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Review of a New Multimodal Antidepressant Vortioxetine

treatment of major depressive disorder. J Pharmacol Exp. Ther. 2012; 340 (3): 666-675. 7. Hvenegaard MG, Bang-Andersen B, Pedersen H, Jørgensen M, Püschl A, Dalgaard L. Identification of the cytochrome P450 and other enzymes involved in the in vitro oxidative metabolism of a novel antidepressant, Lu AA21004. Drug Metab Dispos. 2012; 40 (7): 1357-1365. 8. Chen G, Lee R, Højer AM, Buchbjerg JK, Serenko M, Zhao Z. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions involving vortioxetine (Lu AA21004), a multimodal antidepressant. Clin Drug Investig. 2013; 33: 727-736. 9

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Vitamin C dosing during continuous renal replacement therapy: The last word is not said!

To the editor Pharmacokinetic and dose-response data suggest a vitamin C (vit C) dose largely exceeding 3 g daily in critically ill patients. We recently proposed higher vit C dosing in cardiac arrest patients who require continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT).[ 1 ] In a reaction, Spoelstra-de Man et al . rebutted that increasing the vit C dose above 2 g/day during continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) was unnecessary when normal plasma vit C concentrations are targeted. They based their standpoint on calculating less vit C removal during CVVH

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Pupillary Light Reflex in Children with ADHD

disorder. Eur Psychiatry 2012; 27 (1) P-347. 33. Hysek CM., Simmpler LD, Schillinger N, Meyer N, Schmid Y, Donzelli M, Grouzmann E, Liechti ME. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of methylphenidate and MDMA administered alone or in combination. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2014; 17 (03): 371-381. 34. Shibao C, R. Raj S, Gamboa A, Diedrich A, Choi L, Black BK, Robertson D, Biaggioni I. Norepinephrine Transporter Blockade With Atomoxetine Induces Hypertension in Patients With Impaired Autonomic Function. Hypertension. 2007; 50 (1): 47-53. 35. Liang

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