Herbert Spapen, Johan van Laethem, Maya Hites, An Verdoodt, Marc Diltoer and Patrick M. Honoré
the 1970s because of significant renal and neurological toxicity. [ 4 ] At present, COL is increasingly put forward as salvage or first-line treatment for severe MDR-GNB infections, particularly in the ICU. [ 5 ] COL is administered intravenously as the inactive prodrug colistimethate sodium (CMS) that is hydrolyzed to COL. From a pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) viewpoint, COL possesses rapid concentration-dependent bacterial killing against susceptible strains, but the ratio of the area under the concentration time curve of the unbound fraction to the
Patrick M. Honore, David De Bels, Luc Kugener, Sebastien Redant, Rachid Attou, Andrea Gallerani and Herbert D. Spapen
To the editor
Pharmacokinetic and dose-response data suggest a vitamin C (vit C) dose largely exceeding 3 g daily in critically ill patients. We recently proposed higher vit C dosing in cardiac arrest patients who require continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT).[ 1 ] In a reaction, Spoelstra-de Man et al . rebutted that increasing the vit C dose above 2 g/day during continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) was unnecessary when normal plasma vit C concentrations are targeted. They based their standpoint on calculating less vit C removal during CVVH
Patrick M. Honore, Rita Jacobs, Olivier Joannes-Boyau, Willem Boer, Elisabeth De Waele, Viola Van Gorp and Herbert D. Spapen
1. Spapen HD, Jacobs R, Van Gorp V, Troubleyn J, Honoré PM. Renal and neurological side effects of colistin in critically ill patients. Ann Intensive Care 2011;1:14.
2. Bergen PJ, Li J, Rayner CR, Nation RL. Colistin methanesulfonate is an inactive prodrug of colistin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006;50:1953-8.
3. Couet W, Grégoire N, Marchand S, Mimoz O. Colistin pharmacokinetics: The fog is lifting. Clin Microbiol Infect 2012;18:30-9.
4. Yahav D
1. Nauck MA, Homberger E, Siegel EG et al. Incretin effects of increasing glucose loads in man calculated from venous insulin and C-peptide responses. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 63: 492-498, 1986.
2. Nauck MA, Stöckmann F, Ebert R, Creutzfeldt W. Reduced incretin effect in type 2 (noninsulin- dependent) diabetes. Diabetologia 29: 46-52, 1986.
3. Vildagliptin - summary of product characteristics, 2012.
4. He Y-L. Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of
Ayman Geddawy, Yasmine F. Ibrahim, Nabil M. Elbahie and Mohammad A. Ibrahim
approved in combination with PegIFN-alpha and ribavirin for the treatment of chronic HCV genotype 1 infection in 2011.  However, these drugs have been reported to have several drug-drug interactions, and are largely replaced with newer DAA including Simeprevir, Paritaprevir, Daclatasvir, Ledipasvir, Ombitasvir, Sofosbuvir and Dasabuvir. Table 3 summarizes the pharmacokinetics of all approved DAA with special reference to the sites of drug-drug interaction. Clinical pharmacology of the newer DAA will be discussed in the next section.
receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and mixed-treatment comparison analysis. Diabetes Obes Metab 19: 524-536, 2017.
7. Malone J, Trautmann M, Wilhelm K, Taylor K, Kendall DM. Exenatide once weekly for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 18:359-367, 2009.
8. Knop FK, Brønden A, Vilsbøll T. Exenatide: pharmacokinetics, clinical use, and future directions. Expert Opin Pharmacother 18: 555-571, 2017.
9. Abd El Aziz MS, Kahle M, Meier JJ, Nauck MA. A meta-analysis comparing clinical effects of short- or
Patrick M. Honore, Rita Jacobs, Olivier Joannes-Boyau, Elisabeth De Waele and Herbert D. Spapen
. Endocrinology in Intensive Care Medicine: New Insights and Therapeutic Consequences. Verh K Acad Geneeskd Belg 2002;64:167-87.
16. Amer MR, Akhras NS, Mahmood WA, Al-Jazairi AS. Antimicrobial Stewardship Program Implementation in a medical intensive care unit in a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia. Ann Saudi Med 2013;33:547-54.
17. Honore PM, Jacobs R, Spapen HD. Impact of altered antimicrobial pharmacokinetics on antimicrobial dosing during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Annu Update Intensive Care Emerg Med 2014;34 [In Press
14. Eng CM, Smallwood LH, Rainiero MP, Lahey M, Ward SR, Lieber RL. Scaling of muscle architecture and fiber types in the rat hindlimb. J Exp Biol 211: 2336-2345, 2008.
15. Hu N, Xie S, Liu L et al. Opposite effect of diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin on oral and intravenous pharmacokinetics of verapamil in rats. Drug Metab Dispos 39: 419-425, 2011.
16. Dupouy VM, Ferre PJ, Uro-Coste E, Lefebvre HP. Time course of COX-1 and COX-2 expression during ischemia-reperfusion in rat skeletal muscle. J