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Olorunfemi Eseyin, Aniekan Ebong, Anefiok Ubobre, Johnson Ekarika and Imo Udo

chloroquine sulphate and aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica A Juss (Meliaceae) in rabbits. Acta Pharmaceutica. 2003;53(4):305-11. 8. O’Brien D, Haddad AR. Consulting patients on drug-food interactions. U. S. Pharmacist. 2002;22(6). 9. Eseyin OA, Edoho EJ, Igboasoiyi AC, Nwadiukwu E, Ekpo A. Effects of the leaf extract of Telfairia occidentalis on the pharmacokinetic of chloroquine. International Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2007;1(4):256-260. 10. Igboasoiyi AC, Eseyin OA, Udoma NF. The effect of ethanolic extract of

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Dan Andonie, Zsolt Gáll, Paul Bosa, Maria Titica Dogaru and Szende Vancea

carbamazepine in serum and saliva samples by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection Odre đ ivanje karbamazepina u uzorcima seruma i salive primenom te č ne hromatografije visokih performansi sa ultravioletnom de. Vojn Pregl . 2009;66:347-352. 18. Krasowski MD, McMillin GA. Advances in anti-epileptic drug testing. Clin Chim Acta . 2014;436:224-236. 19. Beig A, Dahan A. Quantification of carbamazepine and its 10,11-epoxide metabolite in rat plasma by UPLC-UV and application to pharmacokinetic study. Biomed Chromatogr . 2014

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Patrick M. Honoré, Rita Jacobs, Elisabeth De Waele, Jouke De Regt, Thomas Rose and Herbert D. Spapen

References 1. Sefar S, Degoricija V. About drug dialyzability. Acta Clin Croat 2003;42:257-26. 2. Al-Habet SM, Rogers HJ. Methylprednisolone pharmacokinetics after intravenous and oral administration. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1989;27:285-90. 3. Venkatesh B, Myburgh J, Finfer S, Webb SA, Cohen J, Bellomo R, et al. The ADRENAL study protocol: Adjunctive corticosteroid treatment in critically ill patients with septic shock. Crit Care Resusc 2013;15:83-8. 4. Frey BM, Frey FJ. Clinical pharmacokinetics of

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Renata Rezonja, Lea Knez, Tanja Cufer and Aleš Mrhar

. Pharmacokinetic optimisation of treatment with oral etoposide. Clin Pharmacokinet 2004; 43: 441-6. 13. Montecucco A, Biamonti G. Cellular response to etoposide treatment. Cancer Lett 2007; 252: 9-18. 14. Hande KR. The importance of drug scheduling in cancer chemotherapy: etoposide as an example. Oncologist 1996; 1: 234-9. 15. Greco FA, Johnson DH, Hande KR, Porter LL, Hainsworth JD, Wolff SN. High-dose etoposide (VP-16) in small-cell lung cancer. Semin Oncol 1985; 12(Suppl 2): 42-4. 16. Slevin ML

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J. Stasko, J. Stasko, M. Janickova, K. Mikuskova, I. Malachovsky, P. Gengelova, M. Kasaj, M. Smatanova and D. Statelova

Abstract

The direct oral anticoagulant drugs (DOAC) are generally safe and effective in several clinical settings including acute venous thromboembolic disease, prophylaxis in the postoperative setting, prevention of thromboembolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, and in the management of acute coronary syndrome. The relatively short half-life, rapid onset of action, and predictable pharmacokinetics should simplify periprocedural use of the DOAC. The aim of this work is to propose and summarize periprocedural management of patients treated with the DOAC in dental practice and to inform about the principal specifications of this treatment.

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I. Hodorova, J. Mihalik, J. Vecanova, M. Dankova and S. Rybarova

Renal Ontogeny of P-Glycoprotein/MDR1 in Rat

BACKGROUND: P-glycoprotein (Pgp/MDR1) is an ATP-dependent, integral plasma-membrane efflux pump that is constitutively expressed on adult apical brush-border epithelium of renal proximal tubules. This Pgp/MDR1 tissue distribution and localization affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of Pgp/MDR1 substrates. The ontogeny of rat Pgp/MDR1 is still doubtful, and such knowledge may be helpful in understanding age-related pharmacokinetics. The purpose of this study was to determine, whether Pgp/MDR1 expression is altered during development.

METHODS: Postnatal expression of Pgp was determined using immunohistochemical method. Tissue from Wistar rat were isolated on the 1st day (D1), 7th day (D7), 14th day (D14), 21st day of life (D21) and from adult animals (60 days old; Ad).

RESULTS: Our ontogeny study illustrated that expression of Pgp was relatively constant from birth to adulthood.

CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of the ontogeny of transport proteins involved in distribution and elimination of drugs is important for adequate interpretation of the results of toxicity studies in juvenile animals.

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P. Hnilicova and D. Dobrota

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance as a Diagnostic Tool in Breast Cancer

The early detection and treatment of breast cancer is of direct benefit to patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising modality for detection, diagnosis, and staging of breast cancer. MRI enables two methods: the diffusion-weighted MRI (DW MRI) and the dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE MRI). DW MRI reflects the diffusion of water molecules in the extracellular fluid space and allows the estimation of cellularity and tissue structure. The value of the diffusion of water in tissue is called the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). ADC values in malignant lesions are smaller than in benign tissue. DCE MRI yields appropriate pharmacokinetic data of physiological parameters that relate to tissue perfusion, microvascular vessel wall permeability and extracellular volume fraction. Gadolinium based contrast agent is usually used in breast DCE MRI diagnostics. Changes in the post-contrast signal intensity help to distinguish lesions according to characteristically enhanced accumulation of contrast agent. Malignant lesions are characterized by a faster and stronger signal enhancement than benign lesions which relate to their neoangiogenesis. Over the last few years, there has been appreciable interest in the use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for the non-invasive analysis of breast tisue metabolites. One of the spectroscopic hallmarks of the neoplastic process appears to be the presence of total choline signal in the in vivo spectrum. Despite the fact that MRI and MRS achieve excellent results, they are still not so frequently used in comparison to mammography and breast ultrasound.

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Oleh Yadlovskiy, Tatiana Bukhtiarova and Anatoliy Demchenko

Pharmacology of (R)- and (S)- Ketorolac. J Clin Pharmacol. 1998; 38: 25-35. 8. King TE, Joynes RL, Grau JW Tail-flick test: II. The role of supraspinal systems and avoidance learning. Behav Neurosci . 1997;111:754-767. 9. Komlos E, Porsresr J, Knole J.Morfin - prostigmin synergismus. Az. Acta. Phisiologica. Acad. Scient. Hungaricae.-1950;1: 77-83. 10. Lugo RA, Kern SE. Clinical pharmacokinetics of morphine. J. Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2002; 16(4): 5-18. 11. Mathias SD, Kuppermann M, Liberman RF, Lipschutz

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Odusoga Osonuga and Ifabunmi Osonuga

White NJ. Clinical pharmacokinetics of antimalarial drugs. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1985;10(3):187-215. doi:10.2165/00003088-198510030-00001 PMID:3893840 Hosein S. Infection fighters - Artemisia - experience. Treatment information Exchange. Canada Update 60. Vol 7.

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Ruxandra Irimia, Ioana Teodora Tofolean, Roxana Gabriela Sandu, Oana Elena Băran, Maria Cătălina Ceauşescu, Vlad Coşoreanu, Maria Teodora Ilie, Ramona Babeş, Constanţa Ganea and Irina Băran

flavonoid quercetin: pharmacokinetics and evidence for in vitro tyrosine kinase inhibition.Clin Cancer Res 1996;2:659-68 [19] Am J Clin Nutr Oct 1, 2001, vol 74, no 4 418-425 [20] Rice s.a., 2003; Loke s.a., 2008; Kanadaswami s.a., 2005