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Pāvels Sudmalis, Mārīte Ārija Baķe and Juris Rotbergs

Reducing Risks to People from the Use of Pesticides. ACS Symposium Series, Vol. 951, Chapter 4. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 49–69. Hopf, N. B., Ruder, A. M., Succop, P. (2009). Background levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in the U.S. population. Sci. Total Environ ., 407 , 6109–6119. Jackson, L. W., Lynch, C. D., Kostyniak, P. J., McGuinness, B. M., Louis, G. M. (2010). Prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and child size at 24 months of age. Reprod. Toxicol ., 25–31. Glynn, A., Aune, M., Darnerud, P. O., Bjerselius

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Jēkabs Raipulis, Malda Toma and Maija Balode

References Ahitiainen, J.H., Vanhala, P., Myllymaki, J. (2003). Effects of different plant protection programme on soil microbes. Ecotox. Environm. Safety , 54 , 56--64. Ames, B.N. (1992) Pollution, pesticides and cancer. J. AOAC (Association of Analytical Communities) Int. , 75 , 1--5. Anonymous (1996). ISO 6341:20 Water quality: Determination of long time toxicity of substances to Daphnia magna Strauss ( Cladocera Crustacea ). International Organization for Standardization

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Branimir Nježić, Dušan Pećanin and Gordana Ðurić

Abstract

European cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cerasi) is the key pest of sweet and sour cherry throughout Europe. Pest management is usually based on pesticide application. The key of successful management is knowing the proper time of pesticide application, based on the phenological model. To develop a phenological model, a local population of the pest from the northern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina was studied. First adult appearance and population densities were monitored by yellow sticky traps. Soil and air temperatures were compared at two thermal thresholds, 5 °C and 7 °C. Air temperature was applied in the model since it is more suitable for farmers and is related to soil temperature. Both thermal thresholds can be used. The first adult flies were captured after 435 degree-days (dd) and the first cumulative 5% of the catch after 605 dd. These two times should be considered for time of application of pesticides. Regarding time for first egg hatch, the first larva burrowed into fruits at 730 dd. Cultivars that can be harvested beginning on the 730 dd calculate from 1 March are considered to have low risk of cherry fruit fly damage.

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Attila Kántor, Ján Mareček, Eva Ivanišová, Margarita Terentjeva and Miroslava Kačániová

Abstract

Grape surface is an unstable habitat that changes greatly according to the stage of grape ripening. Different bacteria and yeasts can colonise the surface of grape berry and the diversity of microorganisms depends on the stage of ripening, pesticide application and health condition. The aim of this study was to study the microflora of the surface of grape berries. Altogether, 19 grape samples from Slovakia were collected. The spread plate method was applied and a 100 μL inoculum of each dilution (10−2, 10−3) was plated on TSA, MEA, and MRS agar for isolation of microorganisms from grapes. Proteins were extracted from cells by ethanol/formic acid extraction procedure. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry was used for identification of microorganisms. In total, 11 genera of Gram-negative bacteria, 11 of Gram-positive bacteria and nine of yeasts were identified. Among 200 isolates, Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts represented 11%, 27% and 62% of the total number of isolates studied. The most common genera of isolated yeasts were Hanseniaspora (37%), Metschnikowia (31%), and Rhodotorula (10%). The most frequently isolated among Gram-negative bacteria were Acinetobacter (22%), Pseudomonas (22%) and Sphingomonas (13%). The most common genera of Gram-positive bacteria were Bacillus (20%), Lactobacillus (19%), Leuconostoc and Staphylococcus (11%), respectively.

Open access

Līga Vilka and Biruta Bankina

Abstract

The American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) is a promising perspective and marketable crop both in Latvia and foreign markets, but an important problem is fruit rot in storage. The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of cranberry fruit rot in storage from fruit collected in different locations in Latvia. In 2007-2011, two hundred sound berries (total 1200) were randomly collected by hand along a diagonal from six different cranberry plantations from locations all over Latvia in every year. Berries were kept in plastic polyethylene (PE-LD 04) bags for four months, refrigerated at +7 °C, 83% relative humidity. At the end of each month, berries were evaluated and rotten berries were separated from the sound ones. Over the period of 2007-2011, the optimal time for cranberry storage was two months, when losses due to fruit rot reached up to 18-21%. The incidence of storage rot at the end of storage period after four months (February) reached 50-88%. The hot and rainy summer of 2010 significantly reduced the quality of fruit in storage, and spoilage reached on the average 88% (74-100%) of berries in the plantations. The incidence of fruit rot varied among the surveyed cranberry growing sites. Storage rot is a problem in cranberry samples from all inspected plantations in Latvia and in the future, the incidence of fruit rot is expected to increase, because the greatest part of growers believe that American cranberries can grow in the same way as wild cranberries, without fertilisation and pesticide use

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Lida Bagdonienė, Danutė Labeikytė, Ivars Kalviņš, Benediktas Juodka and Nikolajs Sjakste

. , 3 , 1-23. Morgan, E.W., Yan, B., Petersen, D. R., Greenway, D., Parkinson, A. (1994). Purification and characterization of two rat liver microsomal carboxyl-esterases (hydrolases A and B). Arch. Biochem. Biophys.   315 , 495-512. Nigg, H.N., Knaak, J.B. (2000). Blood cholinesterases as human biomarkers of organophosphorus pesticide exposure. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. , 163 , 29-111. Orbidāne, O., Meirena, D., Pugovičs, O., Dzintare, M., Sjakste, J., Kalviņš, I., Sjakste, N. (2004

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Māra Dūma, Ina Alsiņa, Laila Dubova and Ieva Erdberga

, 449–455. De Sousa, F. A., Neves, A. N., De Queiroz, M. E. L. R., Heleno, F. F., Teofilo, R., F., de Pinho, G. P. (2014). Influence of ripening stages of tomatoes in the analysis of pesticides by gas chromatography. J. Braz. Chem. Soc ., 25 (8), 1431–1438. Del Giudice, R., Raiola, A., Tenore, G.C., Frusciante, L., Baron, A., Monti, D.M., Rigano, M. M. (2015). Antioxidant bioactive compounds in tomato fruits at different ripening stages and their effects on normal and cancer cells. J. Funct. Foods , 18 , 83–94. Dumas, Y., Dadomo, M., Di Lucca, G

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Vilhelmīne Šteinberga, Olga Mutere, Inga Jansone, Ina Alsiņa and Laila Dubova

, Ristaino, B. J, Hu, S. (2006a). Soil microbial biomass and activity in organic tomato farming systems: Effects of organic inputs and straw mulching. Soil Biol. Biochem., 38 (1-2) 247-255. Zagal, E., Munoz, C., Quiroz, M., Cordova, C. (2009). Sensitivity of early in­dicators for evaluating quality changes in soil organic matter. Geoderma, 151, 191-198. Клинцаре A. (1983). Пестициды и микрофлора растений [Pesticides and Microflora of Plants]. Рига: Зинатне, 165 pp. (in Russian). Павловича Д. (1978). Актиномицеты в Латвии

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Zigrīda Čudare

жуков как показатели готовности к окукливанию [Citological changes in the sexual gland of larva scarabae- ids before pupation]. Труды Института биологии Академии наук Латвийской ССР, Т. 5, 5-41 (in Russian). Циновский Я. П. (1964) Закономерности в развитии гонад щелкунов и их изменения под влиянием пестицидов [Regularities in the develop­ment of gonadal cells of the click-beetle and their changes under the in­fluence of pesticides]. Труды Института биологии Академии наук Латвийской ССР (Фауна Латвийской ССР и сопредельных территорий), Т. 4, 3-21 (in

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Sandra Minova, Rita Sešķēna, Santa Voitkāne, Zane Metla, Māris Daugavietis and Līga Jankevica

oils as green pesticides: Potential and constraints. Biopesticides Int. , 4 (1), 63–84. Krauze-Baranowska, M., Mardarowicz, M., Wiwart, M., Poblocka, L., Dynowska, M. (2002). Antifungal activity of the essential oils from some species of the genus Pinus . Z. Naturforsch. , 57 (c), 478–482. Laugale, V., Daugavietis, M. (2009). Effect of coniferous needle products on strawberry plant development, productivity and spreading of pests and diseases. Acta Hort. , 842 , 239–242. Ludley, K. E., Robinson, C. H., Jickells, S., Chamberlain, P. M