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Ewa Skotarczak, Ewa Bakinowska and Kamila Tomaszyk


A nonlinear statistical approach was used to evaluate the efficiency of plant protection products. The methodology presented can be implemented when the observations in an experiment are recorded as success or failure. This occurs, for example, when following the application of a herbicide or pesticide, a single weed or insect is classified as alive (failure) or dead (success). Then a higher probability of success means a higher efficiency of the tested product. Using simulated data sets, a comparison was made of three methods based on the logit, probit and threshold models, with special attention to the effect of sample size and number of replications on the accuracy of the estimation of probabilities.

Open access

Maria Kozłowska, Monika Jaskulska, Agnieszka Łacka and Radosław J. Kozłowski


As a result of intensive changes in plant production and of environmental changes in agrocenoses, certain agrophages, such as slugs, have in recent years been causing ever increasing amounts of damage to crops of agricultural, horticultural and orchard plants. As a result of the European Parliament and Council Directive adopted on 13 January 2009, the countries of Europe have been required to implement integrated plant protection. One of the principles of this protection is the implementation of strategies which minimize the use of chemical pesticides. Moreover, in accordance with decisions of the European Commission, many active substances have been or are to be withdrawn from the list of available pesticides. An example is metaldehyde, which is to be withdrawn from use in EU countries in the next few years (Commission Decision C/2008/7637 of 5 December 2008). It therefore becomes necessary to seek environmentally safe substances and to develop non-chemical methods for protecting plants against harmful slugs.

An alternative to chemical molluscicides is the parasitic nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. Studies have been made of the effectiveness of this biological method in combating Polish populations of the invasive slug species Arion lusitanicus. This was an incomplete multivariate study, i.e. not all variables could be observed for all treatments on all experimental units. Multivariate model of observations has been derived and a method of analysis has been described. The results of these studies provide a basis for the development of environmentally friendly methods of protecting plants against harmful slugs.

Open access

Satyabrata Pal, Arunava Ghosh and Tapamay Dhar


Economic threshold level (ETL) is an important component in pest management and control. Usually, it is determined by the grower/technologist utilizing his experience on a crop; however, for cereals the values of these indices are available. Knowledge of ETL helps reduce crop loss (and ensure less pesticide application), and as a consequence, profit is increased. Also substantial knowledge is required on the dynamics of the pest population, in order to determine the density at which the economic injury level (EIL) may be prevented (Weersink et al. 1991). This paper is devoted to the development of an analytical method (probabilistic) for determination of ETL, which is defined as the density at which control measures should be determined to prevent an increasing pest population from reaching the economic injury level. A method to model the dynamics of the pest population is also proposed. The above method is demonstrated on a real life data set on pest (whitefly) incidence on betelvine, obtained from an experiment designed for that purpose.